IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finana/v63y2019icp285-295.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Cultural distance and value creation of cross-border M&A: The moderating role of acquirer characteristics

Author

Listed:
  • Boateng, Agyenim
  • Du, Min
  • Bi, XiaoGang
  • Lodorfos, George

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of culture and the interaction between cultural distance and salient acquirer characteristics on value creation of acquiring firms based on a sample of 209 firms over the period of 1998–2012. The findings indicate that Chinese acquirer experience wealth gains ranging from 0.45%–1.49% over a 10 day event window. We find cultural distance to exert a negative influence on value creation of acquirers in the short-and long-term. However, the negative returns are significant only in the short-term but not in the long-term. Further evidence shows that acquirer large size, prior experience and high Tobin's q positively moderate the link between cultural distance and value creation. The results suggest that the effect of culture distance is conditioned by the acquirer size, prior experience and Tobin's q implying that acquirer resources and managerial capabilities are important in dealing with and overcoming cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&A) cultural challenges.

Suggested Citation

  • Boateng, Agyenim & Du, Min & Bi, XiaoGang & Lodorfos, George, 2019. "Cultural distance and value creation of cross-border M&A: The moderating role of acquirer characteristics," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 285-295.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:63:y:2019:i:c:p:285-295
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2018.12.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105752191830125X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Karen B Hisey & Richard E Caves, 1985. "Diversification Strategy and Choice of Country: Diversifying Acquisitions Abroad by U.S. Multinationals, 1978–1980," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 16(2), pages 51-64, June.
    2. Michael Firth, 1980. "Takeovers, Shareholder Returns, and the Theory of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(2), pages 235-260.
    3. Boateng, Agyenim & Asongu, Simplice & Akamavi, Raphael & Tchamyou, Vanessa, 2018. "Information asymmetry and market power in the African banking industry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 69-83.
    4. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2008. "Trusting the Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(6), pages 2557-2600, December.
    5. Fang, Yulin & Wade, Michael & Delios, Andrew & Beamish, Paul W., 2013. "An exploration of multinational enterprise knowledge resources and foreign subsidiary performance," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 30-38.
    6. Anna Nadolska & Harry G Barkema, 2007. "Learning to internationalise: the pace and success of foreign acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(7), pages 1170-1186, December.
    7. Lang, Larry H. P. & Stulz, ReneM. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1991. "A test of the free cash flow hypothesis*1: The case of bidder returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 315-335, October.
    8. Oded Shenkar, 2001. "Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Differences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(3), pages 519-535, September.
    9. Bülent Aybar & Aysun Ficici, 2009. "Cross-border acquisitions and firm value: An analysis of emerging-market multinationals," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1317-1338, October.
    10. Deng, Ping, 2009. "Why do Chinese firms tend to acquire strategic assets in international expansion?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 74-84, January.
    11. Caves, Richard E, 1971. "International Corporations: The Industrial Economics of Foreign Investment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 38(149), pages 1-27, February.
    12. Ravenscraft, David J & Scherer, F M, 1987. "Life after Takeover," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 147-156, December.
    13. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    14. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Entry, Expansion, and Intensity in the US Export Boom, 1987–1992," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 662-675, September.
    15. Yermack, David, 1996. "Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 185-211, February.
    16. Min Du & Agyenim Boateng & David Newton, 2016. "The impact of state ownership, formal institutions and resource seeking on acquirers’ returns of Chinese M&A," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 159-178, July.
    17. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
    18. Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Firm size and the gains from acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 201-228, August.
    19. Dikova, Desislava & Rao Sahib, Padma, 2013. "Is cultural distance a bane or a boon for cross-border acquisition performance?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 77-86.
    20. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2018. "ICT, information asymmetry and market power in African banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 518-531.
    21. Travlos, Nickolaos G, 1987. " Corporate Takeover Bids, Methods of Payment, and Bidding Firms' Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 943-963, September.
    22. Alexandridis, George & Fuller, Kathleen P. & Terhaar, Lars & Travlos, Nickolaos G., 2013. "Deal size, acquisition premia and shareholder gains," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 1-13.
    23. Rui, Huaichuan & Yip, George S., 2008. "Foreign acquisitions by Chinese firms: A strategic intent perspective," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 213-226, March.
    24. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
    25. Sumantra Ghoshal, 1987. "Global strategy: An organizing framework," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(5), pages 425-440, September.
    26. Andy C.W. Chui & Sheridan Titman & K.C. John Wei, 2010. "Individualism and Momentum around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 361-392, February.
    27. Piero Morosini & Scott Shane & Harbir Singh, 1998. "National Cultural Distance and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(1), pages 137-158, March.
    28. Barber, Brad M. & Lyon, John D., 1997. "Detecting long-run abnormal stock returns: The empirical power and specification of test statistics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 341-372, March.
    29. Mike W. Peng & Yi Jiang, 2010. "Institutions Behind Family Ownership and Control in Large Firms," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 253-273, March.
    30. Ajeyo Banerjee & E. Woodrow Eckard, 1998. "Are Mega-Mergers Anticompetitive? Evidence from the First Great Merger Wave," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(4), pages 803-827, Winter.
    31. Rajesh Chakrabarti & Swasti Gupta-Mukherjee & Narayanan Jayaraman, 2009. "Mars–Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(2), pages 216-236, February.
    32. Lang, Larry H. P. & Stulz, ReneM. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1989. "Managerial performance, Tobin's Q, and the gains from successful tender offers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 137-154, September.
    33. Shimizu, Katsuhiko & Hitt, Michael A. & Vaidyanath, Deepa & Pisano, Vincenzo, 2004. "Theoretical foundations of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A review of current research and recommendations for the future," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 307-353.
    34. Sudi Sudarsanam & Ashraf A. Mahate -super-*, 2003. "Glamour Acquirers, Method of Payment and Post-acquisition Performance: The UK Evidence," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1-2), pages 299-342.
    35. Kiymaz, Halil, 2004. "Cross-border acquisitions of US financial institutions: Impact of macroeconomic factors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1413-1439, June.
    36. Ahern, Kenneth R. & Daminelli, Daniele & Fracassi, Cesare, 2015. "Lost in translation? The effect of cultural values on mergers around the world," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 165-189.
    37. Fama, Eugene F, 1970. "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 383-417, May.
    38. Wernerfelt, Birger & Montgomery, Cynthia A, 1988. "Tobin's q and the Importance of Focus in Firm Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(1), pages 246-250, March.
    39. Li, Jiatao & Li, Peixin & Wang, Baolian, 2016. "Do cross-border acquisitions create value? Evidence from overseas acquisitions by Chinese firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 471-483.
    40. Scott E. Page, 2007. "Prologue to The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies," Introductory Chapters, in: The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies, Princeton University Press.
    41. Du, Min & Boateng, Agyenim, 2015. "State ownership, institutional effects and value creation in cross-border mergers & acquisitions by Chinese firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 430-442.
    42. Constatinos C Markides & Christopher D Ittner, 1994. "Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversification: Evidence from U.S. International Acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 343-366, June.
    43. Sathyajit R Gubbi & Preet S Aulakh & Sougata Ray & M B Sarkar & Raveendra Chittoor, 2010. "Do international acquisitions by emerging-economy firms create shareholder value? The case of Indian firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(3), pages 397-418, April.
    44. Günter K. Stahl & Andreas Voigt, 2008. "Do Cultural Differences Matter in Mergers and Acquisitions? A Tentative Model and Examination," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 19(1), pages 160-176, February.
    45. Harbir Singh & Cynthia A. Montgomery, 1987. "Corporate acquisition strategies and economic performance," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(4), pages 377-386, July.
    46. Taco H Reus & Bruce T Lamont, 2009. "The double-edged sword of cultural distance in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1298-1316, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:63:y:2019:i:c:p:285-295. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620166 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.