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Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city


  • Zhang, Shaojun
  • Wu, Ye
  • Un, Puikei
  • Fu, Lixin
  • Hao, Jiming


Modeling fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles has created substantial concerns due to the uncertainty from real-world operating conditions. Macao is world-renowned for its tourism industry and high population density. An empirical model is developed to estimate real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for gasoline-powered light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by considering local fleet configuration and operating conditions. Thanks to increasingly stringent fuel consumption limits in vehicle manufacturing countries, estimated type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by model year was reduced from 7.4 L/100 km in 1995 to 5.9 L/100 km in 2012, although a significant upsizing trend has considerably offset potential energy-saving benefit. However, lower driving speed and the air-conditioning usage tend to raise fleet-average fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission factors, which are estimated to be 10.1 L/100 km and 240 g/km in 2010. Fleet-total fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are modeled through registered vehicle population-based and link-level traffic demand approaches and the results satisfactorily coincide with the historical record of fuel sales in Macao. Temporal and spatial variations in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles further highlight the importance of effective traffic management in congested areas of Macao.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, Shaojun & Wu, Ye & Un, Puikei & Fu, Lixin & Hao, Jiming, 2016. "Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 461-471.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:113:y:2016:i:c:p:461-471
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Iankov, Ivan & Taylor, Michael A.P. & Scrafton, Derek, 2017. "Forecasting greenhouse gas emissions performance of the future Australian light vehicle traffic fleet," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 125-146.
    2. Küng, Lukas & Bütler, Thomas & Georges, Gil & Boulouchos, Konstantinos, 2019. "How much energy does a car need on the road?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 256(C).
    3. Wörz, Sascha & Bernhardt, Heinz, 2017. "A novel method for optimal fuel consumption estimation and planning for transportation systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 565-572.
    4. Hu, Yi & Yin, Zhifeng & Ma, Jian & Du, Wencui & Liu, Danhe & Sun, Luxi, 2017. "Determinants of GHG emissions for a municipal economy: Structural decomposition analysis of Chongqing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 196(C), pages 162-169.
    5. Tsiakmakis, Stefanos & Fontaras, Georgios & Dornoff, Jan & Valverde, Victor & Komnos, Dimitrios & Ciuffo, Biagio & Mock, Peter & Samaras, Zissis, 2019. "From lab-to-road & vice-versa: Using a simulation-based approach for predicting real-world CO2 emissions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 1153-1165.
    6. Tong, Zheming & Chen, Yujiao & Malkawi, Ali, 2016. "Defining the Influence Region in neighborhood-scale CFD simulations for natural ventilation design," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 182(C), pages 625-633.


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