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Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions by driving conditions for light-duty passenger vehicles in China


  • Zhang, Shaojun
  • Wu, Ye
  • Liu, Huan
  • Huang, Ruikun
  • Un, Puikei
  • Zhou, Yu
  • Fu, Lixin
  • Hao, Jiming


The increasing discrepancy between on-road and type-approval fuel consumption for LDPVs (light-duty passenger vehicles) has attracted tremendous attention. We measured on-road emissions for 60 LDPVs in three China's cities and calculated their fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. We further evaluated the impacts of variations in area-averaged speed on relative fuel consumption of gasoline LDPVs for the UAB (urban area of Beijing). On-road fuel consumption under the average driving pattern is 10 ± 2% higher than that normalized to the NEDC (new European driving cycle) cycle for all tested vehicles, and the on-road NEDC-normalized fuel consumption is higher by 30 ± 12% compared to type-approval values for gasoline vehicles. We observed very strong correlations between relative fuel consumption and average speed. Traffic control applied to LDPVs driving within the UAB during weekdays can substantially reduce total fleet fuel consumption by 23 ± 5% during restriction hours by limiting vehicle use and improving driving conditions. Our results confirmed that a new cycle for the type approval test for LDPVs with more real-world driving features is of great necessity. Furthermore, enhanced traffic control measures could play an important role in mitigating real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for LDPVs in China.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, Shaojun & Wu, Ye & Liu, Huan & Huang, Ruikun & Un, Puikei & Zhou, Yu & Fu, Lixin & Hao, Jiming, 2014. "Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions by driving conditions for light-duty passenger vehicles in China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 247-257.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:69:y:2014:i:c:p:247-257
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    3. Greene, David L. & Khattak, Asad J. & Liu, Jun & Wang, Xin & Hopson, Janet L. & Goeltz, Richard, 2017. "What is the evidence concerning the gap between on-road and Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy ratings?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 146-160.
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    12. Nils Hooftman & Luis Oliveira & Maarten Messagie & Thierry Coosemans & Joeri Van Mierlo, 2016. "Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(2), pages 1-24, January.
    13. Dennis Dreier & Semida Silveira & Dilip Khatiwada & Keiko V. O. Fonseca & Rafael Nieweglowski & Renan Schepanski, 2019. "The influence of passenger load, driving cycle, fuel price and different types of buses on the cost of transport service in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil," Transportation, Springer, vol. 46(6), pages 2195-2242, December.
    14. Wang, Jian & Peeta, Srinivas & He, Xiaozheng, 2019. "Multiclass traffic assignment model for mixed traffic flow of human-driven vehicles and connected and autonomous vehicles," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 139-168.
    15. Zhou, Boya & Wu, Ye & Zhou, Bin & Wang, Renjie & Ke, Wenwei & Zhang, Shaojun & Hao, Jiming, 2016. "Real-world performance of battery electric buses and their life-cycle benefits with respect to energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 603-613.
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    17. Gong, Huiming & Zou, Yuan & Yang, Qingkai & Fan, Jie & Sun, Fengchun & Goehlich, Dietmar, 2018. "Generation of a driving cycle for battery electric vehicles:A case study of Beijing," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 901-912.
    18. Feiqi Liu & Fuquan Zhao & Zongwei Liu & Han Hao, 2018. "China’s Electric Vehicle Deployment: Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(12), pages 1-19, November.
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    20. Costagliola, Maria Antonietta & Costabile, Marianeve & Prati, Maria Vittoria, 2018. "Impact of road grade on real driving emissions from two Euro 5 diesel vehicles," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 231(C), pages 586-593.
    21. Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios & Kontses, Anastasios & Tsokolis, Dimitrios & Ntziachristos, Leonidas & Samaras, Zissis, 2017. "Potential of energy efficiency technologies in reducing vehicle consumption under type approval and real world conditions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 140(P1), pages 365-373.
    22. Fontaras, Georgios & Grigoratos, Theodoros & Savvidis, Dimitrios & Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos & Luz, Raphael & Rexeis, Martin & Hausberger, Stefan, 2016. "An experimental evaluation of the methodology proposed for the monitoring and certification of CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles in Europe," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 354-364.
    23. Aderiana Mutheu Mbandi & Jan R. Böhnke & Dietrich Schwela & Harry Vallack & Mike R. Ashmore & Lisa Emberson, 2019. "Estimating On-Road Vehicle Fuel Economy in Africa: A Case Study Based on an Urban Transport Survey in Nairobi, Kenya," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(6), pages 1-28, March.
    24. Wang, Renjie & Wu, Ye & Ke, Wenwei & Zhang, Shaojun & Zhou, Boya & Hao, Jiming, 2015. "Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 92-103.

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    Light-duty passenger vehicle; Fuel consumption; Driving condition; CO2;

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