Trends in passenger transport and freight energy use in Spain
This paper provides for the first time a complete analysis of recent trends in activity, carbon emissions, modal shares, energy intensities, vehicle use and fuels in the Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008 and discusses policy options. Passenger and freight activities have increased in Spain and are projected to continue, presenting a challenge for sustainable mobility efforts; emissions have increased, mainly fueled by the rise in activity; modal shares have pulled away from public transport, with a decrease in bus and rail, towards an increase in car and air travel; energy intensities, though initially decreasing, are currently increasing; and fuel use has taken over 37% of Spanish final energy consumption. To target these issues the Spanish government has focused its efforts in targeting energy efficiency through dieselization, which has not led to positive results. More recently policies and measures have been directed towards redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. Little has been done to reduce activity besides some anecdotic public awareness campaigns. Activity reduction may be achieved with regulations, restrictions and mobility plans; by increasing high speed rail and rail freight transport; by improving intermodality and tying the Spanish rail network with the EU; and with more urban transport planning at local level.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hymel, Kent M. & Small, Kenneth A. & Dender, Kurt Van, 2010. "Induced demand and rebound effects in road transport," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1220-1241, December.
- Ang, B. W. & Liu, F. L. & Chew, E. P., 2003. "Perfect decomposition techniques in energy and environmental analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(14), pages 1561-1566, November.
- Ang, B. W., 2005. "The LMDI approach to decomposition analysis: a practical guide," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 867-871, May.
- Lee Schipper & Calanit Saenger & Anant Sudardshan, 2011. "Transport and Carbon Emissions in the United States: The Long View," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 563, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:10:p:6466-6475. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.