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Does democracy drive income in the world, 1500–2000?

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  • Madsen, Jakob B.
  • Raschky, Paul A.
  • Skali, Ahmed

Abstract

Using data for political regimes, income and human capital for a sample of 141 countries over the periods 1820–2000 and 1500–2000, this research examines the income and growth effects of democracy when human capital, among other key variables, is controlled for. Linguistic distance-weighted foreign democracy is used as an instrument for domestic democracy. Democracy is found to be a significant determinant of income and growth and the result is robust to various estimation methods and covariates. We find that a one-standard deviation increase in democracy is associated with a 44–98% increase in per capita income.

Suggested Citation

  • Madsen, Jakob B. & Raschky, Paul A. & Skali, Ahmed, 2015. "Does democracy drive income in the world, 1500–2000?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 175-195.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:78:y:2015:i:c:p:175-195
    DOI: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2015.05.005
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    Cited by:

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    5. Zhenxiong Li & Hilary Ingham, 2020. "Financial Development, Economic Performance and Democracy," Working Papers 291296033, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    6. Pierre-Guillaume Méon & Khalid Sekkat, 2016. "A time to throw stones, a time to reap: How long does it take for democratic transitions to improve institutional outcomes?," Working Papers CEB 16-016, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    7. Ezcurra, Roberto & Zuazu, Izaskun, 2019. "Political equality and quality of government," MPRA Paper 96476, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Broich, Tobias, 2017. "Do authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development finance than democratic ones? Empirical evidence for Africa," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 180-207.
    9. Naima Chrid & Sami Saafi & Mohamed Chakroun, 2021. "Export Upgrading and Economic Growth: a Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 12(2), pages 811-841, June.
    10. Colagrossi, Marco & Rossignoli, Domenico & Maggioni, Mario A., 2020. "Does democracy cause growth? A meta-analysis (of 2000 regressions)," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    11. Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa & Inekwe, John & Ivanovski, Kris, 2020. "Stochastic convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: Evidence from emerging economies, 1921–2014," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
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    13. Hany Abdel-Latif & Tapas Mishra & Anita Staneva, 2019. "Arab Countries between Winter and Spring: Where Democracy Shock Goes Next!," Economies, MDPI, vol. 7(1), pages 1-19, March.
    14. Daron Acemoglu & Suresh Naidu & Pascual Restrepo & James A. Robinson, 2019. "Democracy Does Cause Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 127(1), pages 47-100.
    15. Saafi Sami & Nouira Ridha, 2018. "Re-Examining the Relationship Between Export Upgrading and Economic Growth: Is there a Threshold Effect?," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 49(4), pages 437-454.
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    18. Mohamed Chakroun & Naima Chrid & Sami Saafi, 2021. "Does export upgrading really matter to economic growth? Evidence from panel data for high‐, middle‐ and low‐income countries," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 5584-5609, October.
    19. Gründler, Klaus & Krieger, Tommy, 2016. "Democracy and growth: Evidence from a machine learning indicator," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(S), pages 85-107.
    20. Klaus Gründler & Tommy Krieger, 2019. "Should We Care (More) About Data Aggregation? Evidence from Democracy Indices," CESifo Working Paper Series 7480, CESifo.
    21. Zuazu, Izaskun, 2019. "The growth effect of democracy and technology: An industry disaggregated approach," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 115-131.
    22. Eberhardt, Markus, 2019. "Democracy Does Cause Growth: Comment," CEPR Discussion Papers 13659, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Eugene Kouassi & Sandotin Coulibaly & Oluyele Akinkugbe & Mbodja Mougoué, 2021. "The democracy income‐growth nexus in the southern African development community revisited," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 1835-1854, April.
    24. Francis OSEI-TUTU & Laurent WEILL, 2020. "Does Access to Credit Come with Access to Voting? Democracy and Firm Financing Constraints," Working Papers of LaRGE Research Center 2020-04, Laboratoire de Recherche en Gestion et Economie (LaRGE), Université de Strasbourg.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Democracy; Economic growth; Human capital; Long-term economic development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • H1 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government
    • P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism
    • P48 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies

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