IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/econom/v195y2016i2p187-208.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Using invalid instruments on purpose: Focused moment selection and averaging for GMM

Author

Listed:
  • DiTraglia, Francis J.

Abstract

In finite samples, the use of a slightly endogenous but highly relevant instrument can reduce mean-squared error (MSE). Building on this observation, I propose a novel moment selection procedure for GMM–the Focused Moment Selection Criterion (FMSC)–in which moment conditions are chosen not based on their validity but on the MSE of their associated estimator of a user-specified target parameter. The FMSC mimics the situation faced by an applied researcher who begins with a set of relatively mild “baseline” assumptions and must decide whether to impose any of a collection of stronger but more controversial “suspect” assumptions. When the (correctly specified) baseline moment conditions identify the model, the FMSC provides an asymptotically unbiased estimator of asymptotic MSE, allowing us to select over the suspect moment conditions. I go on to show how the framework used to derive the FMSC can address the problem of inference post-moment selection. Treating post-selection estimators as a special case of moment-averaging, in which estimators based on different moment sets are given data-dependent weights, I propose simulation-based procedures for inference that can be applied to a variety of formal and informal moment-selection and averaging procedures. Both the FMSC and confidence interval procedures perform well in simulations. I conclude with an empirical example examining the effect of instrument selection on the estimated relationship between malaria and income per capita.

Suggested Citation

  • DiTraglia, Francis J., 2016. "Using invalid instruments on purpose: Focused moment selection and averaging for GMM," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 195(2), pages 187-208.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:195:y:2016:i:2:p:187-208
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2016.07.006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407616301518
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Matei Demetrescu & Uwe Hassler & Vladimir Kuzin, 2011. "Pitfalls of post-model-selection testing: experimental quantification," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 359-372, April.
    2. Kai Carstensen & Erich Gundlach, 2006. "The Primacy of Institutions Reconsidered: Direct Income Effects of Malaria Prevalence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 20(3), pages 309-339.
    3. Leeb, Hannes & Potscher, Benedikt M., 2008. "Sparse estimators and the oracle property, or the return of Hodges' estimator," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(1), pages 201-211, January.
    4. repec:eee:econom:v:200:y:2017:i:1:p:17-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Easterly, William & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 3-39, January.
    6. Phillips, P C B, 1980. "The Exact Distribution of Instrumental Variable Estimators in an Equation Containing n + 1 Endogenous Variables," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 861-878, May.
    7. Xiaohong Chen & David T. Jacho-Chávez & Oliver Linton, 2009. "An Alternative Way of ComputingEfficient Instrumental VariableEstimators," STICERD - Econometrics Paper Series 536, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    8. Donald W. K. Andrews, 1999. "Consistent Moment Selection Procedures for Generalized Method of Moments Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(3), pages 543-564, May.
    9. Jeffrey D. Sachs, 2003. "Institutions Don't Rule: Direct Effects of Geography on Per Capita Income," NBER Working Papers 9490, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Patrik Guggenberger & Gitanjali Kumar, 2012. "On the size distortion of tests after an overidentifying restrictions pretest," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(7), pages 1138-1160, November.
    11. Kinal, Terrence W, 1980. "The Existence of Moments of k-Class Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 241-249, January.
    12. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2001. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1369-1401, December.
    13. Eddelbuettel, Dirk & Francois, Romain, 2011. "Rcpp: Seamless R and C++ Integration," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 40(i08).
    14. Berkowitz, Daniel & Caner, Mehmet & Fang, Ying, 2008. "Are "Nearly Exogenous Instruments" reliable?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 20-23, October.
    15. Hong, Han & Preston, Bruce & Shum, Matthew, 2003. "Generalized Empirical Likelihood Based Model Selection Criteria For Moment Condition Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(06), pages 923-943, December.
    16. Aart Kraay, 2012. "Instrumental variables regressions with uncertain exclusion restrictions: a Bayesian approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(1), pages 108-128, January.
    17. Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian & Francesco Trebbi, 2004. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 131-165, June.
    18. Kabaila, Paul & Leeb, Hannes, 2006. "On the Large-Sample Minimal Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals After Model Selection," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 101, pages 619-629, June.
    19. Caner, Mehmet, 2014. "Near exogeneity and weak identification in generalized empirical likelihood estimators: Many moment asymptotics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(2), pages 247-268.
    20. Claeskens, Gerda & Hjort, Nils Lid, 2008. "Minimizing Average Risk In Regression Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(02), pages 493-527, April.
    21. Claeskens,Gerda & Hjort,Nils Lid, 2008. "Model Selection and Model Averaging," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521852258.
    22. Berkowitz, Daniel & Caner, Mehmet & Fang, Ying, 2012. "The validity of instruments revisited," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 166(2), pages 255-266.
    23. Andrews, Donald W. K. & Lu, Biao, 2001. "Consistent model and moment selection procedures for GMM estimation with application to dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 123-164, March.
    24. Donald, Stephen G & Newey, Whitney K, 2001. "Choosing the Number of Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1161-1191, September.
    25. Yoonseok Lee & Mehmet Caner & Xu Han, 2015. "Adaptive Elastic Net GMM Estimation with Many Invalid Moment Conditions: Simultaneous Model and Moment Selection," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 177, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    26. Eddelbuettel, Dirk & Sanderson, Conrad, 2014. "RcppArmadillo: Accelerating R with high-performance C++ linear algebra," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 1054-1063.
    27. Gerda Claeskens & Christophe Croux & Johan Van Kerckhoven, 2006. "Variable Selection for Logistic Regression Using a Prediction-Focused Information Criterion," Biometrics, The International Biometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 972-979, December.
    28. Xiao, Zhiguo, 2010. "The weighted method of moments approach for moment condition models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 183-186, May.
    29. Guido Kuersteiner & Ryo Okui, 2010. "Constructing Optimal Instruments by First-Stage Prediction Averaging," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(2), pages 697-718, March.
    30. Andrews, Donald W.K., 1992. "Generic Uniform Convergence," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(02), pages 241-257, June.
    31. Yuhong Yang, 2005. "Can the strengths of AIC and BIC be shared? A conflict between model indentification and regression estimation," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 92(4), pages 937-950, December.
    32. Xu Cheng & Zhipeng Liao, 2011. "Select the Valid and Relevant Moments: An Information-Based LASSO for GMM with Many Moments, Second Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 13-062, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 21 Oct 2013.
    33. Leeb, Hannes & P tscher, Benedikt M., 2005. "Model Selection And Inference: Facts And Fiction," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(01), pages 21-59, February.
    34. Timothy G. Conley & Christian B. Hansen & Peter E. Rossi, 2012. "Plausibly Exogenous," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 260-272, February.
    35. Guggenberger, Patrik, 2012. "On The Asymptotic Size Distortion Of Tests When Instruments Locally Violate The Exogeneity Assumption," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(02), pages 387-421, April.
    36. Kabaila, Paul, 1998. "Valid Confidence Intervals In Regression After Variable Selection," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(04), pages 463-482, August.
    37. Liao, Zhipeng, 2013. "Adaptive Gmm Shrinkage Estimation With Consistent Moment Selection," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(05), pages 857-904, October.
    38. K. Newey, Whitney, 1985. "Generalized method of moments specification testing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 229-256, September.
    39. Schorfheide, Frank, 2005. "VAR forecasting under misspecification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 99-136, September.
    40. McCloskey, Adam, 2017. "Bonferroni-based size-correction for nonstandard testing problems," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 200(1), pages 17-35.
    41. Alastair R. Hall & Fernanda P. M. Peixe, 2003. "A Consistent Method for the Selection of Relevant Instruments," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 269-287, January.
    42. Judge, George G. & Mittelhammer, Ron C., 2007. "Estimation and inference in the case of competing sets of estimating equations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(2), pages 513-531, June.
    43. Caner, Mehmet, 2009. "Lasso-Type Gmm Estimator," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(01), pages 270-290, February.
    44. Donald, Stephen G. & Imbens, Guido W. & Newey, Whitney K., 2009. "Choosing instrumental variables in conditional moment restriction models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 152(1), pages 28-36, September.
    45. Guggenberger, Patrik, 2010. "The Impact Of A Hausman Pretest On The Asymptotic Size Of A Hypothesis Test," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(02), pages 369-382, April.
    46. Andrews, Donald W.K., 1988. "Laws of Large Numbers for Dependent Non-Identically Distributed Random Variables," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(03), pages 458-467, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Toru Kitagawa & Chris Muris, 2015. "Model averaging in semiparametric estimation of treatment effects," CeMMAP working papers CWP46/15, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. Seojeong Lee, 2015. "A Consistent Variance Estimator for 2SLS When Instruments Identify Different LATEs," Discussion Papers 2015-01, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
    3. Liu, Chu-An, 2012. "A plug-in averaging estimator for regressions with heteroskedastic errors," MPRA Paper 41414, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Cheng, Xu & Liao, Zhipeng, 2015. "Select the valid and relevant moments: An information-based LASSO for GMM with many moments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 186(2), pages 443-464.
    5. Lee, Seojeong, 2014. "Asymptotic refinements of a misspecification-robust bootstrap for generalized method of moments estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 178(P3), pages 398-413.
    6. Leeb, Hannes & Pötscher, Benedikt M., 2012. "Testing in the Presence of Nuisance Parameters: Some Comments on Tests Post-Model-Selection and Random Critical Values," MPRA Paper 41459, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Liu, Chu-An, 2015. "Distribution theory of the least squares averaging estimator," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 186(1), pages 142-159.
    8. Xu Cheng & Zhipeng Liao & Ruoyao Shi, 2013. "Uniform Asymptotic Risk of Averaging GMM Estimator Robust to Misspecification, Second Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 15-017, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 25 Mar 2015.
    9. Toru Kitagawa & Chris Muris, 2013. "Covariate selection and model averaging in semiparametric estimation of treatment effects," CeMMAP working papers CWP61/13, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    10. repec:taf:emetrv:v:36:y:2017:i:6-9:p:840-852 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Chu‐An Liu & Biing‐Shen Kuo, 2016. "Model averaging in predictive regressions," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 19(2), pages 203-231, June.
    12. Hansen, Bruce E., 2016. "Efficient shrinkage in parametric models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(1), pages 115-132.
    13. Shou-Yung Yin & Chu-An Liu & Chang-Ching Lin, 2016. "Focused Information Criterion and Model Averaging for Large Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," IEAS Working Paper : academic research 16-A016, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    14. Ruoyao Shi & Zhipeng Liao, 2018. "An Averaging GMM Estimator Robust to Misspecification," Working Papers 201803, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics.
    15. Xu Cheng & Zhipeng Liao, 2012. "Select the Valid and Relevant Moments: A One-Step Procedure for GMM with Many Moments," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-045, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Moment selection; GMM estimation; Model averaging; Focused Information Criterion; Post-selection estimators;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C26 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:195:y:2016:i:2:p:187-208. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconom .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.