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Are "Nearly Exogenous Instruments" reliable?


  • Berkowitz, Daniel
  • Caner, Mehmet
  • Fang, Ying


We show that when instruments are nearly exogenous, the two stage least squares t-statistic unpredictably over-rejects or under-rejects the null hypothesis that the endogenous regressor is insignificant and Anderson-Rubin test over-rejects the null. We prove that in the limit these tests are no longer nuisance parameter free.

Suggested Citation

  • Berkowitz, Daniel & Caner, Mehmet & Fang, Ying, 2008. "Are "Nearly Exogenous Instruments" reliable?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 20-23, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:101:y:2008:i:1:p:20-23

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. DiTraglia, Francis J., 2016. "Using invalid instruments on purpose: Focused moment selection and averaging for GMM," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 195(2), pages 187-208.
    2. Kraay, Aart, 2008. "Instrumental variables regressions with honestly uncertain exclusion restrictions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4632, The World Bank.
    3. Berkowitz, Daniel & DeJong, David N., 2011. "Growth in post-Soviet Russia: A tale of two transitions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 133-143.
    4. Caner, Mehmet, 2014. "Near exogeneity and weak identification in generalized empirical likelihood estimators: Many moment asymptotics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(2), pages 247-268.
    5. Seojeong Lee, 2015. "A Consistent Variance Estimator for 2SLS When Instruments Identify Different LATEs," Discussion Papers 2015-01, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
    6. repec:wyi:journl:002148 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Doko Tchatoka, Firmin Sabro, 2012. "Specification Tests with Weak and Invalid Instruments," MPRA Paper 40185, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Dang, Duc Anh, 2013. "How foreign direct investment promote institutional quality: Evidence from Vietnam," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 1054-1072.
    9. Lavergne, Pascal, 2015. "Model Equivalence Tests for Overidentifying Restrictions," TSE Working Papers 15-562, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Nov 2015.
    10. Lee, Seojeong, 2014. "Asymptotic refinements of a misspecification-robust bootstrap for generalized method of moments estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 178(P3), pages 398-413.
    11. repec:oup:qjecon:v:132:y:2017:i:4:p:1553-1592. is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Michal Kolesár & Raj Chetty & John Friedman & Edward Glaeser & Guido W. Imbens, 2015. "Identification and Inference With Many Invalid Instruments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 474-484, October.
    13. repec:eme:aecozz:s0731-905320140000033013 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Kapetanios, George & Khalaf, Lynda & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2015. "Factor based identification-robust inference in IV regressions," CEPR Discussion Papers 10390, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. repec:wyi:journl:002149 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Berkowitz, Daniel & Caner, Mehmet & Fang, Ying, 2012. "The validity of instruments revisited," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 166(2), pages 255-266.
    17. Daniel L. Bennett & Hugo J. Faria & James D. Gwartney & Hugo M. Montesinos-Yufa & Daniel R. Morales & Carlos E. Navarro, 2017. "Evidence on economic versus political institutions as determinants of development," Working Papers 2017-04, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
    18. Cai, Zongwu & Fang, Ying & Su, Jia, 2012. "Reducing asymptotic bias of weak instrumental estimation using independently repeated cross-sectional information," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 180-185.
    19. Jan F. Kiviet & Jerzy Niemczyk, 2014. "On the Limiting and Empirical Distributions of IV Estimators When Some of the Instruments are Actually Endogenous," Advances in Econometrics,in: Essays in Honor of Peter C. B. Phillips, volume 33, pages 425-490 Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    20. Faria, Hugo J. & Montesinos-Yufa, Hugo M. & Morales, Daniel R. & Navarro, Carlos E., 2016. "Unbundling the roles of human capital and institutions in economic development," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(S), pages 108-128.
    21. Isaiah Andrews & Matthew Gentzkow & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2017. "Measuring the Sensitivity of Parameter Estimates to Estimation Moments," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(4), pages 1553-1592.
    22. repec:wyi:journl:002137 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Rietveld, Cornelius A. & Webbink, Dinand, 2016. "On the genetic bias of the quarter of birth instrument," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 137-146.

    More about this item


    C30 Valid instruments Weak identification Inference;

    JEL classification:

    • C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General


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