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Systematic peak-load pricing, congestion premia and demand diverting: Empirical evidence

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  • Escobari, Diego

Abstract

This paper finds empirical support to systematic peak-load pricing in airlines -- higher fares in ex-ante known congested periods. It estimates a congestion premia and supports the main empirical prediction in Gale and Holmes [Gale, I., Holmes, T., 1993. Advance-purchase discounts and monopoly allocation of capacity. American Economic Review 83, 135-146] -- less discount seats on peak flights.

Suggested Citation

  • Escobari, Diego, 2009. "Systematic peak-load pricing, congestion premia and demand diverting: Empirical evidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 59-61, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:103:y:2009:i:1:p:59-61
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gale, Ian L & Holmes, Thomas J, 1993. "Advance-Purchase Discounts and Monopoly Allocation of Capacity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 135-146, March.
    2. Daniel, Joseph I, 1995. "Congestion Pricing and Capacity of Large Hub Airports: A Bottleneck Model with Stochastic Queues," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(2), pages 327-370, March.
    3. Guillermo Gallego & Garrett van Ryzin, 1994. "Optimal Dynamic Pricing of Inventories with Stochastic Demand over Finite Horizons," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(8), pages 999-1020, August.
    4. Wen Zhao & Yu-Sheng Zheng, 2000. "Optimal Dynamic Pricing for Perishable Assets with Nonhomogeneous Demand," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(3), pages 375-388, March.
    5. Diego Escobari & Li Gan, 2007. "Price Dispersion under Costly Capacity and Demand Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 13075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Eden, Benjamin, 1990. "Marginal Cost Pricing When Spot Markets Are Complete," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1293-1306, December.
    7. Gale, Ian L. & Holmes, Thomas J., 1992. "The efficiency of advance-purchase discounts in the presence of aggregate demand uncertainty," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 413-437, September.
    8. Borenstein, Severin & Rose, Nancy L, 1994. "Competition and Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(4), pages 653-683, August.
    9. James D. Dana & Jr., 1998. "Advance-Purchase Discounts and Price Discrimination in Competitive Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(2), pages 395-422, April.
    10. Crew, Michael A & Fernando, Chitru S & Kleindorfer, Paul R, 1995. "The Theory of Peak-Load Pricing: A Survey," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 215-248, November.
    11. James D. Dana Jr., 1999. "Equilibrium Price Dispersion Under Demand Uncertainty: The Roles of Costly Capacity and Market Structure," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(4), pages 632-660, Winter.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Escobari, Diego & Jindapon, Paan, 2014. "Price discrimination through refund contracts in airlines," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 1-8.
    2. Diego Escobari & Sang-Yeob Lee, 2012. "Demand shifting across flights and airports in a spatial competition model," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 175-183, October.
    3. Diego Escobari & Jim Lee, 2014. "Demand uncertainty and capacity utilization in airlines," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 1-19, August.
    4. Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 2012. "Dynamic Competition With Random Demand and Costless Search: A Theory of Price Posting," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(3), pages 1185-1247, May.
    5. Bar, Michael & Chernomaz, Kirill & Diego, Escobari, 2010. "Pricing and travelers' decision to use frequent flyer miles: evidence from the U.S. airline industry," MPRA Paper 32201, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Diego Escobari, 2013. "Asymmetric Price Adjustments in Airlines," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(2), pages 74-85, March.
    7. repec:eee:retrec:v:62:y:2017:i:c:p:37-43 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Escobari, Diego, 2014. "Estimating dynamic demand for airlines," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 26-29.
    9. Clark, Robert & Vincent, Nicolas, 2012. "Capacity-contingent pricing and competition in the airline industry," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 7-11.
    10. Frank Limehouse & Michael Maloney & Kurt Rotthoff, 2012. "Peak-Load Versus Discriminatory Pricing: Evidence from the Golf Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 40(3), pages 151-165, May.
    11. Diego Escobari, 2012. "Dynamic Pricing, Advance Sales and Aggregate Demand Learning in Airlines," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 697-724, December.
    12. Evangelinos, Christos & Obermeyer, Andy & Püschel, Ronny, 2011. "Preisdispersion und Wettbewerb im Luftverkehr: Ein theoretischer und empirischer Überblick," Discussion Papers 2/2011, Technische Universität Dresden, "Friedrich List" Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences, Institute of Transport and Economics.
    13. Diego Escobari & Cristhian Mellado, 2014. "The Choice of Airport, Airline, and Departure Date and Time: Estimating the Demand for Flights," Advances in Airline Economics,in: The Economics of International Airline Transport, volume 4, pages 177-198 Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    14. repec:eee:transa:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:198-210 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Steven L. Puller & Anirban Sengupta & Steven N. Wiggins, 2009. "Testing Theories of Scarcity Pricing in the Airline Industry," NBER Working Papers 15555, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Escobari, Diego, 2017. "Airport, airline and departure time choice and substitution patterns: An empirical analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 198-210.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Airlines Congestion premia Peak-load pricing;

    JEL classification:

    • L93 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Air Transportation
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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