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FDI and pollution havens: Evidence from the Norwegian manufacturing sector

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  • Rezza, Alief A.

Abstract

This is an empirical study of the firm and country determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) and how it is affected by the stringency of environmental regulations in host countries. We employ disaggregated data on sales by Norwegian multinationals' affiliates from 1999 to 2005 that allow such affiliates to be categorized as either efficiency-seeking (vertical) or market-seeking (horizontal) FDI. While the environmental stringency of a host country and its enforcement are found to have no effect on the average investment, we find a significant negative effect on multinationals with vertical motives. Compared to those located in lenient countries, the efficiency-seeking affiliates in more environmentally regulated countries receive less investment from their parent companies in terms of (i) equity capital, (ii) capital stock, and (iii) assets. We further find that the total exports from affiliates to parent companies in Norway decrease with the level of enforced environmental stringency in the host countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Rezza, Alief A., 2013. "FDI and pollution havens: Evidence from the Norwegian manufacturing sector," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 140-149.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:90:y:2013:i:c:p:140-149
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.03.014
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    1. repec:eee:jeeman:v:85:y:2017:i:c:p:171-192 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Candau, Fabien & Dienesch, Elisa, 2017. "Pollution Haven and Corruption Paradise," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 171-192.
    3. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2017. "How does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Pollution? Toward a Better Understanding of the Direct and Conditional Effects," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 66(2), pages 293-338, February.
    4. Bialek, Sylwia & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2015. "Do stringent environmental policies deter FDI? M&A versus Greenfi eld," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113179, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    5. Jing Xu & Min Zhou & Hailong Li, 2016. "ARDL-based research on the nexus among FDI, environmental regulation, and energy consumption in Shanghai (China)," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 84(1), pages 551-564, October.
    6. Yaya Keho, 2015. "Is Foreign Direct Investment Good or Bad for the Environment? Times Series Evidence from ECOWAS Countries," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(3), pages 1916-1927.
    7. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2017. "Trade in Environmental Goods: Empirical Exploration of Direct and Indirect Effects on Pollution by Country’s Trade Status," Working Papers 2017.56, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    8. repec:eee:eneeco:v:64:y:2017:i:c:p:13-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:eee:appene:v:201:y:2017:i:c:p:188-199 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:eco:journ2:2018-01-20 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Thi Anh Dam & Markus Pasche & Niclas Werlich, 2017. "Trade Patterns and the Ecological Footprint - a theory-based Empirical Approach," Jena Economic Research Papers 2017-005, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    12. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-17-00941 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental regulations; Foreign direct investment; Pollution havens;

    JEL classification:

    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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