On conflict over natural resources
This paper considers a game theoretic framework of repeated conflict over natural resource extraction, in which the victory in each engagement is probabilistic and the winner takes all the extracted resource. Every period, each contesting group allocates its capabilities, or power, between resource extraction and fighting over the extracted amount. The probability of victory rises with fighting effort, but a weaker group can still win an encounter. The victorious group wins all of the extracted resources and converts them to power, and the game repeats. In one model, groups openly access the resource. In a variant of the model, the stronger group can access a larger part of the resource than its rival, while in a second variant of the model the advantage of the dominant group is made more decisive than in the first two models. Our models generate outcomes that mimic several aspects of real-world conflict, including full military mobilization, defeats in one or repeated battles, victories following defeats, changes in relative dominance, and surrender. We examine comparative dynamics with respect to changes in the resource attributes, resource extraction, initial power allocation, fighting capabilities, and power accumulation. The policy implications are evaluated, and future research avenues are discussed.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Suzuki, Yukari & Iwasa, Yoh, 2009. "Conflict between groups of players in coupled socio-economic and ecological dynamics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(4), pages 1106-1115, February.
- Hirshleifer, Jack, 1995.
"Anarchy and Its Breakdown,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(1), pages 26-52, February.
- Rafael Reuveny, 2002. "Economic Growth, Environmental Scarcity, and Conflict," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 2(1), pages 83-110, 02.
- Garfinkel, M.R. & Skaperdas, S., 2000.
"Conflict without Misperceptions or Incomplete Information: how the Future Matters,"
99-00-11, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Michelle R Garfinkel & Stergios Skaperdas, 2001. "Conflict Without Misperceptions or Incomplete Information: How the Future Matters," Levine's Working Paper Archive 563824000000000011, David K. Levine.
- Grossman, Herschel I & Kim, Minseong, 1995. "Swords or Plowshares? A Theory of the Security of Claims to Property," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(6), pages 1275-1288, December.
- Luterbacher Urs, 2001. "Property Rights, State Structures, and International Cooperation," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(3), pages 1-30, July.
- Sachs, Jeffrey D. & Warner, Andrew M., 2001. "The curse of natural resources," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 827-838, May.
- G. D. Hess, 1995. "An Introduction To Lewis Fry Richardson and His Mathematical Theory of War and Peace," Conflict Management and Peace Science, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 14(1), pages 77-113, February.
- Durham, Yvonne & Hirshleifer, Jack & Smith, Vernon L., 2008.
"The Paradox of Power,"
Handbook of Experimental Economics Results,
- Alexis Jacquemin, 1987. "The New Industrial Organization: Market Forces and Strategic Behavior," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262600145.
- Maxwell, John W. & Reuveny, Rafael, 2005.
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 30-52, September.
- Welsch, Heinz, 2008. "Resource abundance and internal armed conflict: Types of natural resources and the incidence of 'new wars'," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 503-513, October.
- BenDor, Todd & Scheffran, Jürgen & Hannon, Bruce, 2009. "Ecological and economic sustainability in fishery management: A multi-agent model for understanding competition and cooperation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(4), pages 1061-1073, February.
- Anderton, Charles H & Anderton, Roxane A & Carter, John R, 1999. "Economic Activity in the Shadow of Conflict," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(1), pages 166-79, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:70:y:2011:i:4:p:698-712. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.