Long-term effects of Head Start on academic and school outcomes of children in persistent poverty: Girls vs. boys
Using various years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and their two Child Development Supplements of 1997 and 2002, this study focused on the long-term effects of Head Start programs on academic achievement and school outcomes of children who grew up in chronic poverty after controlling for their home environments and neighborhood qualities. Findings suggest that (1) Head Start participation was associated with higher scores on Woodcock Johnson-Revised Test and decreased involvement with school suspension, expulsion, and grade repetition throughout all school years (from age 7 to 17) for chronically poor girls and that (2) home environments and parents' education are more consistent and significant determinants of children's long-term outcomes than Early Childhood Care and Education programs including Head Start. The findings of this study offer implications for policy and research.
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