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Improving urban bus emission and fuel consumption modeling by incorporating passenger load factor for real world driving


  • Yu, Qian
  • Li, Tiezhu
  • Li, Hu


Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) has been increasingly used as a good indicator for the instantaneous power demand on engines for real world driving in the field of vehicle emission and fuel consumption modeling. A fixed vehicle mass is normally used in VSP calculations. However, the influence of passenger load was always been neglected. The major objective of this paper is to quantify the influence of passenger load on diesel bus emissions and fuel consumption based on the real-world on-road emission data measured by the Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) on urban diesel buses in Nanjing, China. Meanwhile, analyses are conducted to investigate whether passenger load affected the accuracy of emission and fuel consumption estimations based on VSP. The results show that the influence of passenger load on emission and fuel consumption rates were related to vehicle’s speed and acceleration. As for the distance-based factors, the influence of passenger load was not obvious when the buses were driving at a relative high speed. However the effects of passenger load were significant when the per-passenger factor was used. Per-passenger emission and fuel consumption factors decreased as the passenger load increased. It was also found that the influence of passenger load can be omitted in the emission and fuel consumption rate models at low and medium speed bins but has to be considered in the models for high speed and VSP bins. Otherwise it could lead to an error of up to 49%. The results from this research will improve the accuracy of urban bus emission and fuel consumption modeling and can be used to improve planning and management of city buses and thus achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

Suggested Citation

  • Yu, Qian & Li, Tiezhu & Li, Hu, 2016. "Improving urban bus emission and fuel consumption modeling by incorporating passenger load factor for real world driving," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 101-111.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:161:y:2016:i:c:p:101-111
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.096

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Zhang, Shaojun & Wu, Ye & Liu, Huan & Huang, Ruikun & Yang, Liuhanzi & Li, Zhenhua & Fu, Lixin & Hao, Jiming, 2014. "Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of urban public buses in Beijing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1645-1655.
    2. Zhang, Shaojun & Wu, Ye & Hu, Jingnan & Huang, Ruikun & Zhou, Yu & Bao, Xiaofeng & Fu, Lixin & Hao, Jiming, 2014. "Can Euro V heavy-duty diesel engines, diesel hybrid and alternative fuel technologies mitigate NOX emissions? New evidence from on-road tests of buses in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 118-126.
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    Cited by:

    1. Xiaonian Shan & Xiaohong Chen & Wenjian Jia & Jianhong Ye, 2019. "Evaluating Urban Bus Emission Characteristics Based on Localized MOVES Using Sparse GPS Data in Shanghai, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(10), pages 1-15, May.
    2. Yang, Haifei & Zhai, Xue & Zheng, Changjiang, 2018. "Effects of variable speed limits on traffic operation characteristics and environmental impacts under car-following scenarios: Simulations in the framework of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 509(C), pages 567-577.
    3. Li, Peilin & Zhao, Pengjun & Brand, Christian, 2018. "Future energy use and CO2 emissions of urban passenger transport in China: A travel behavior and urban form based approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 211(C), pages 820-842.
    4. Ali Keyvanfar & Arezou Shafaghat & Nasiru Zakari Muhammad & M. Salim Ferwati, 2018. "Driving Behaviour and Sustainable Mobility—Policies and Approaches Revisited," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(4), pages 1-27, April.
    5. Rajaeifar, Mohammad Ali & Tabatabaei, Meisam & Aghbashlo, Mortaza & Nizami, Abdul-Sattar & Heidrich, Oliver, 2019. "Emissions from urban bus fleets running on biodiesel blends under real-world operating conditions: Implications for designing future case studies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 276-292.
    6. Bigazzi, Alexander, 2019. "Comparison of marginal and average emission factors for passenger transportation modes," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 242(C), pages 1460-1466.


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