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Elektromobilität in Deutschland: Chancen, Barrieren und Auswirkungen auf das Elektrizitätssystem

Listed author(s):
  • Wolf-Peter Schill

Electric mobility has recently received much attention from politics, media, car companies and electric utilities. This article discusses technical aspects, chances and barriers of electric mobility. Compared to internal combustion engines, electric vehicles have several potential advantages: low local emissions, increased energy efficiency, a diversification of energy sources and the possibility of using renewable energy. In addition, there are synergies between the vehicle fleet and the electricity system, which might be realized by implementating the Vehicle-to-Grid concept. The low cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles is a major barrier. Moreover, there are infrastructural and socio-cultural obstacles. As for the impact on the electricity system, a differentiated view is necessary. In general, existing German power plants are capable of generating the additional electricity required by future e-mobility scenarios. Problematic peak loads however can only be avoided if vehicle loading is carried out in a controlled way. In the short run, it should not be expected that electric vehicles lead to significant reductions of German carbon emissons. Yet in the long run, electric mobility might provide a sustainable technology pathway, particularly if there is an additional expansion of renewable energy. Nonetheless, integrating electric vehicles in a sustainable overall mobility concept is required. Politik, Medien, Fahrzeugbauer und Energieunternehmen widmen der Elektromobilität derzeit große Aufmerksamkeit. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet technische Aspekte, Chancen und Barrieren elektrischer Fahrzeugantriebe und ordnet sie in einen Gesamtzusammenhang ein. Vorteile gegenüber klassischen Verbrennungsmotoren bestehen in geringen lokalen Emissionen, einer höheren Energieeffizienz, der Verbreiterung der energetischen Ressourcenbasis und der Möglichkeit zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Bei Umsetzung des Vehicle-to-Grid-Konzepts könnten zudem Synergien zwischen der Fahrzeugflotte und dem Elektrizitätssystem erschlossen werden. Die derzeit schlechte Wirtschaftlichkeit von Elektrofahrzeugen stellt jedoch eine erhebliche Barriere dar. Daneben bestehen infrastrukturelle und soziokulturelle Hürden. Die Auswirkungen auf das Elektrizitätssystem sind differenziert zu betrachten: Während die mittelfristig benötigten Energiemengen bereits mit dem heutigen Kraftwerkspark darstellbar sind, können problematische Lastspitzen nur bei einer gesteuerten Aufladung vermieden werden. Kurzfristig sind in Deutschland von elektrischen Fahrzeugantrieben keine signifikanten CO2-Einsparungen zu erwarten. Langfristig könnte durch ihre Einführung jedoch ein zukunftsfähiger Pfad eingeschlagen werden, insbesondere wenn ein zusätzlicher Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien erfolgt. Die Einbettung individueller Elektromobilität in ein nachhaltiges Gesamtkonzept ist jedoch erforderlich.

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Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung.

Volume (Year): 79 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 139-159

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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:79-2-9
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  1. Guille, Christophe & Gross, George, 2009. "A conceptual framework for the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) implementation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4379-4390, November.
  2. Jerry A. Hausman, 1979. "Individual Discount Rates and the Purchase and Utilization of Energy-Using Durables," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 33-54, Spring.
  3. Turrentine, Tom & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2007. "Car buyers and fuel economy?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt56x845v4, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  4. Andersson, S.-L. & Elofsson, A.K. & Galus, M.D. & Göransson, L. & Karlsson, S. & Johnsson, F. & Andersson, G., 2010. "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2751-2762, June.
  5. Turrentine, Thomas S. & Kurani, Kenneth S., 2007. "Car buyers and fuel economy?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1213-1223, February.
  6. Thompson, Philip B, 1997. "Evaluating energy efficiency investments: accounting for risk in the discounting process," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 989-996, October.
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