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Policy Biases when the Monetary and Fiscal Authorities have Different Objectives

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  • Herman Bennett C.
  • Norman Loayza O.

Abstract

The question that this paper examines is what policy bias there may be when monetary and fiscal authorities have different preferences regarding the importance of closing the output and inflation gaps created by adverse economic shocks. For this purpose, the paper follows a game-theoretic approach to model the interaction between monetary and fiscal authorities, each having different preferences and controlling their respective policy instrument. Modeled as a Nash or Stackelberg equilibrium, the absence of policy coordination implies that an increase in the preference divergence between both authorities leads to, ceteris paribus, larger public deficits (the fiscal authority’s policy instrument) and higher interest rates (the central bank’s instrument). The empirical section of the paper provides evidence in favor of this conclusion in a pooled sample of 19 industrial countries with annual information for the period 1970-94. The policy implication of the paper is that, without prejudice to the gains from central bank independence, institutional arrangements that allow for monetary-fiscal coordination may alleviate the biases that move the economy to sub-optimally higher fiscal deficits and real interest rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Herman Bennett C. & Norman Loayza O., 2000. "Policy Biases when the Monetary and Fiscal Authorities have Different Objectives," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 3(2), pages 53-72, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:chb:bcchec:v:3:y:2000:i:2:p:53-72
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. William D. Nordhaus, 1994. "Policy games: Coordination and Independece in Monetary and Fiscal Policies," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 25(2), pages 139-216.
    2. Cukierman, Alex & Webb, Steven B & Neyapti, Bilin, 1992. "Measuring the Independence of Central Banks and Its Effect on Policy Outcomes," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(3), pages 353-398, September.
    3. Loewy, Michael B, 1988. "Reaganomics and Reputation Revisited," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(2), pages 253-263, April.
    4. Alex Cukierman, 1992. "Central Bank Strategy, Credibility, and Independence: Theory and Evidence," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262031981, January.
    5. Walsh, Carl E., 1993. "Central bank strategies, credibility, and independence : A review essay," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 287-302, November.
    6. Woodford, Michael, 1999. "Optimal Monetary Policy Inertia," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 67(0), pages 1-35, Supplemen.
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    Cited by:

    1. Md. Habibur Rahman, 2009. "Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies on Output Growth in Bangladesh: A VAR Approach," Working Papers id:2100, eSocialSciences.
    2. Luis Felipe Céspedes C. & Rodrigo Valdés P., 2006. "Central Bank Autonomy: The Chilean Experience," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 9(1), pages 25-47, April.
    3. Kamal, Mona, 2010. "التحقق من أثر التنسيق بين السياستين المالية والنقدية على الأهداف الاقتصادية باستخدام نموذج قياسي
      [The Assessment of the Impact of the Coordination between Fiscal and Monetary Policies on Economic O
      ," MPRA Paper 26670, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Mehmet BÖLÜKBAÞ, 2016. "The Effects of Economic Policies in Turkey: An Application for the Period After 2000," Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, KSP Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 315-322, December.
    5. Irena Woroniecka-Leciejewicz, 2015. "Equilibrium strategies in a fiscal-monetary game. A simulation analysis," Operations Research and Decisions, Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Organization and Management, vol. 2, pages 75-100.
    6. Luis Felipe Céspedes & Rodrigo Valdés, 2006. "Autonomía de Bancos Centrales: La Experiencia Chilena," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 358, Central Bank of Chile.

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