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Policy Biases when the Monetary and Fiscal Authorities have Different Objectives

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  • Herman Bennett C.
  • Norman Loayza O.

Abstract

The question that this paper examines is what policy bias there may be when monetary and fiscal authorities have different preferences regarding the importance of closing the output and inflation gaps created by adverse economic shocks. For this purpose, the paper follows a game-theoretic approach to model the interaction between monetary and fiscal authorities, each having different preferences and controlling their respective policy instrument. Modeled as a Nash or Stackelberg equilibrium, the absence of policy coordination implies that an increase in the preference divergence between both authorities leads to, ceteris paribus, larger public deficits (the fiscal authority’s policy instrument) and higher interest rates (the central bank’s instrument). The empirical section of the paper provides evidence in favor of this conclusion in a pooled sample of 19 industrial countries with annual information for the period 1970-94. The policy implication of the paper is that, without prejudice to the gains from central bank independence, institutional arrangements that allow for monetary-fiscal coordination may alleviate the biases that move the economy to sub-optimally higher fiscal deficits and real interest rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Herman Bennett C. & Norman Loayza O., 2000. "Policy Biases when the Monetary and Fiscal Authorities have Different Objectives," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 3(2), pages 53-72, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:chb:bcchec:v:3:y:2000:i:2:p:53-72
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Herman Bennett & Norman Loayza, 2002. "Policy Biases when the Monetary and Fiscal Authorities Have Different Objectives," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Norman Loayza & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Series (ed.),Monetary Policy: Rules and Transmission Mechanisms, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 11, pages 299-330, Central Bank of Chile.
    2. Goran Petrevski & Borce Trenovski & Biljana Tashevska, 2019. "The effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies in a small open economy – the case of Macedonia," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(6), pages 805-821, November.
    3. Md. Habibur Rahman, 2009. "Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies on Output Growth in Bangladesh: A VAR Approach," Working Papers id:2100, eSocialSciences.
    4. Marco Buti & André Sapir, 2002. "EMU in the Early Years: Differences and Credibility," Chapters, in: Marco Buti & André Sapir (ed.), EMU and Economic Policy in Europe, chapter 1, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Emad Omar Elhendawy, 2019. "Coordination or Dominance of Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Egypt," International Journal of Economics and Finance, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 11(12), pages 1-28, December.
    6. Luis Felipe Céspedes C. & Rodrigo Valdés P., 2006. "Central Bank Autonomy: the Chilean Experience," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 9(1), pages 25-47, April.
    7. Kamal, Mona, 2010. "التحقق من أثر التنسيق بين السياستين المالية والنقدية على الأهداف الاقتصادية باستخدام نموذج قياسي [The Assessment of the Impact of the Coordination between Fiscal and Monetary Policies on Economic O," MPRA Paper 26670, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Vîntu, Denis, 2022. "The Relationship between Inflation, Interest Rate, Unemployment and Economic Growth," MPRA Paper 112931, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Feb 2022.
    9. Central Bank of Chile Working Group for the 11th APEC Finance Ministers’ Meeting, 2004. "Institution Building in a World of Free and Volatile Capital Flows: A Case Study of Chile," Economic Policy Papers Central Bank of Chile 12, Central Bank of Chile.
    10. Chandra Utama & Insukindro & Ardyanto Fitrady, 2022. "Fiscal And Monetary Policy Interactions In Indonesia During Periods Of Economic Turmoil In The Us: 2001q1-2014q4," Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking, Bank Indonesia, vol. 25(1), pages 97-116, June.
    11. Mehmet BÖLÜKBAÞ, 2016. "The Effects of Economic Policies in Turkey: An Application for the Period After 2000," Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, KSP Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 315-322, December.
    12. Michal Jurek & Pawel Marszalek, 2015. "Policy alternatives for the relationship between ECB monetary and financial policies and new member states," Working papers wpaper112, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    13. Irena Woroniecka-Leciejewicz, 2015. "Equilibrium strategies in a fiscal-monetary game. A simulation analysis," Operations Research and Decisions, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Management, vol. 25(2), pages 75-100.
    14. Luis Felipe Céspedes & Rodrigo Valdés, 2006. "Autonomía de Bancos Centrales: La Experiencia Chilena," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 358, Central Bank of Chile.
    15. COMBEY, Adama & NUBUKPO, Kako, 2013. "Coordination des Politiques Economiques au Sein de la Zone UEMOA : Bilan et Perspectives [Economic Policy Coordination in the WAEMU: Results and Prospects]," MPRA Paper 58118, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Aug 2014.

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