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Why Has the Middle East Been so Slow to Globalize?

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  • Looney Robert E

    (Naval Postgraduate School)

Abstract

Over the last several decades, the economic performance of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has lagged behind many other parts of the world. While a number of factors have been cited as the cause of the region’s malaise, the lack of globalization is increasingly mentioned as a possible source of difficulty. Focusing on the factors responsible for increased levels of globalization, it appears that internal policy reforms rather than external constraints are primarily responsible for the relative integration of the MENA countries into the world economy. Of the areas of policy under the direct control of MENA governments, improvements in several categories of governance, rather than further economic reforms, appear most effective in the attainment of increased levels of globalization.

Suggested Citation

  • Looney Robert E, 2005. "Why Has the Middle East Been so Slow to Globalize?," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 3(3), pages 2-31, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:rmeecf:v:3:y:2005:i:3:n:2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni & Tajul Ariffin Masron & Reza Ekhtiari Amiri, 2011. "The effects of FDI on voice and accountability in the MENA region," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(9), pages 802-815, August.
    2. Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 739-749, September.
    3. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2009. "Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 229-236, January.
    4. repec:khe:scajes:v:3:y:2017:i:2:p:76-87 is not listed on IDEAS

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