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Direct Victimization Experiences and Fear of Crime: A Gender Perspective


  • Sironi Emiliano

    () (Department of Statistical Sciences, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Gemelli 1, Milan 20123, Italy)

  • Bonazzi Leda Maria

    (Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy)


Using data from the sixth round of the European Social Survey, we implement propensity score matching methods in order to test whether the presence of past experiences of direct victimization decreases citizens’ safety perception. Results confirm the hypothesis that victimization strongly increases the fear of crime; furthermore the effect is also gender specific: victimized women show higher decrease in safety perception than men.

Suggested Citation

  • Sironi Emiliano & Bonazzi Leda Maria, 2016. "Direct Victimization Experiences and Fear of Crime: A Gender Perspective," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 22(2), pages 159-172, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:pepspp:v:22:y:2016:i:2:p:159-172:n:5

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Elena D'Agostino & Emiliano Sironi & Giuseppe Sobbrio, 2013. "The role of education in determining the attitudes towards crime in Europe," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(8), pages 724-727, May.
    2. A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
    3. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
    4. Raul Caruso, 2015. "Beyond deterrence and decline. Towards a general understanding of peace economics," Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, Vita e Pensiero, Pubblicazioni dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, vol. 128(1), pages 57-74.
    5. Caruso, Raul, 2011. "Crime and sport participation: Evidence from Italian regions over the period 1997–2003," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 455-463.
    6. Beraldo, Sergio & Caruso, Raul & Turati, Gilberto, 2013. "Life is now! Time preferences and crime: Aggregate evidence from the Italian regions," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 73-81.
    7. Samuel L. Myers & Chanjin Chung, 1998. "Criminal Perceptions And Violent Criminal Victimization," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 16(3), pages 321-333, July.
    8. Smith, Brent L. & Huff, C. Ronald, 1982. "Crime in the country: The vulnerability and victimization of rural citizens," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 271-282.
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