Indian IT and ICT Industry: A Performance Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Index
The present study gives an account of IT and ICT infrastructure in India and points out the reasons for the boom in the IT exports and outsourcing business today and in times to come. The article analyzes the performances of the Indian IT industry by working out the technical efficiency of the software and telecommunication firms using the mathematical model of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The DEA is a non linear programming way of calculating technical efficiency of the decision making units. The study also examines the impact of various determinants on technical efficiency of software firms and net exports across the IT firms and further examines the determinants for new technology adoption by telecommunication industries, because the success of the software firms in terms of its exports is intertwined with the performance of telecommunication industry. The study uses a Malmquist index to estimate total factor productivity (TFP) change for the common set of software firms existing between 1996 and 2006 using a prowess data base. The total factor productivity is decomposed into efficiency change (catching up phenomena) and technical change (innovations) for the common set of software firms existing between 1996 and 2006 in India. At the end the study works out the performance of the Indian ICT sector in comparison with countries which are front runners using the DEA and global information technology report 2006 data base. The study will quantify the changes needed in the relatively good Indian ICT environment and ICT readiness to increase its ICT usage among individuals, business and government. The article confirms the improvements in productivity, efficiency, and technical change of the Indian Software industry from 1996 to 2006.
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