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Product Differentiation and Mergers in the Carbonated Soft Drink Industry


  • Jean-Pierre Dubé


"I simulate the competitive impact of several soft drink mergers from the 1980s on equilibrium prices and quantities. An unusual feature of soft drink demand is that, at the individual purchase level, households regularly select a variety of soft drink products. Specifically, on a given trip households may select multiple soft drink products and multiple units of each. A concern is that using a standard discrete choice model that assumes single unit purchases may understate the price elasticity of demand. To model the sophisticated choice behavior generating this multiple discreteness , I use a household-level scanner data set. Market demand is then computed by aggregating the household estimates. Combining the aggregate demand estimates with a model of static oligopoly, I then run the merger simulations. Despite moderate price increases, I find substantial welfare losses from the proposed merger between Coca-Cola and Dr. Pepper. I also find large price increases and corresponding welfare losses from the proposed merger between Pepsi and 7 UP and, more notably, between Coca-Cola and Pepsi." Copyright Blackwell Publishing 2005.

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  • Jean-Pierre Dubé, 2005. "Product Differentiation and Mergers in the Carbonated Soft Drink Industry," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(4), pages 879-904, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jemstr:v:14:y:2005:i:4:p:879-904

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Iversen, Tor, 1997. "The effect of a private sector on the waiting time in a national health service," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 381-396, August.
    2. Carol Propper, 1995. "The Disutility of Time Spent on the United Kingdom's National Health Service Waiting Lists," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(4), pages 677-700.
    3. Iversen, Tor, 1993. "A theory of hospital waiting lists," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 55-71, April.
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    1. repec:taf:applec:v:48:y:2016:i:41:p:3976-3994 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Pereira, Pedro & Ribeiro, Tiago, 2011. "The impact on broadband access to the Internet of the dual ownership of telephone and cable networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 283-293, March.
    3. Nicoletta Berardi & Patrick Sevestre & Marine Tépaut & Alexandre Vigneron, 2016. "The impact of a ‘soda tax’ on prices: evidence from French micro data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(41), pages 3976-3994, September.
    4. Sofia Berto Villas-Boas, 2007. "Using Retail Data For Upstream Merger Analysis," Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(4), pages 689-715.
    5. Rachel Griffith & Lars Nesheim, 2008. "Household willingness to pay for organic products," CeMMAP working papers CWP18/08, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    6. Bonnet, Céline & Réquillart, Vincent, 2013. "Tax incidence with strategic firms in the soft drink market," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 77-88.
    7. Timothy Richards, 2007. "A nested logit model of strategic promotion," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 63-91, March.
    8. Manuszak, Mark D., 2010. "Predicting the impact of upstream mergers on downstream markets with an application to the retail gasoline industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 99-111, January.
    9. Bonnet, Céline & Réquillart, Vincent, 2011. "Strategic Pricing and Health Price Policies," IDEI Working Papers 671, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Jul 2012.
    10. Villas-Boas, Sofia B, 2007. "Using Retail Scanner Data for Upstream Merger Analysis: Counterfactual Experiments in the Retail Coffee Market," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt5cn9d0rk, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    11. Xinzhu Zhang & Vanessa Yanhua Zhang, 2011. "Chinese Merger Control: Patterns and Implications," Chapters,in: Competition Policy and Regulation, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Geoffrey Pofahl, 2009. "Merger Simulation in the Presence of Large Choice Sets and Consumer Stockpiling: The Case of the Bottled Juice Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 34(3), pages 245-266, May.

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