EU Food Safety Standards, Pesticide Use and Farm-level Productivity: The Case of High-value Crops in Kenya
This article provides an empirical analysis of the impact of European Union (EU) private food safety standards on pesticide use and farm-level productivity among small-scale vegetable producers in Kenya. We apply an extended three-stage damage control production framework, accounting for multiple endogeneity problems, to farm-level data collected from a random cross-sectional sample of 539 small-scale producers. Estimation results show that farmers producing vegetables for the domestic market use significantly lower quantities of pesticides than do export farmers. However, contrary to findings elsewhere, the econometric evidence here shows that both domestic and export-oriented vegetable farmers in Kenya use pesticides at levels below the economic optimum. The results also show that the adoption of standards by export farmers does not have any significant impact on total pesticide use. However, adopter categories are distinguishable in terms of types of pesticide used, i.e. adopters use safer pesticides based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The third-stage structural revenue model results demonstrate that adoption of standards has a positive and significant impact on revenue raised in vegetable production. Nevertheless, farmers producing for the export market are indistinguishable from those producing for the domestic farmers in terms of the total revenue earned from producing vegetables during the rainy season, on a 'per acre' basis. Although standards can potentially prevent resource-poor smallholders from maintaining their position in the lucrative export markets, they can also result in positive changes in the production systems of those small-scale farmers who adopt it, as shown by these results. Copyright (c) 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2009 The Agricultural Economics Society.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 60 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-857X |
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/subs.asp?ref=0021-857X|
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jageco:v:60:y:2009:i:3:p:645-667. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.