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What Drives the S&P 500 Inclusion Effect? An Analytical Survey

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  • William B. Elliott
  • Bonnie F. Van Ness
  • Mark D. Walker
  • Richard S. Warr

Abstract

We present an analytical survey of the explanations—price pressure, downward‐sloping demand curves, improved liquidity, improved operating performance, and increased investor awareness—for the increase in stock value associated with inclusion in the S&P 500 Index. We find that increased investor awareness is the primary factor behind the cross‐section of abnormal announcement returns. We also find some evidence of temporary price pressure around the inclusion date. We find no evidence that long‐run downward‐sloping demand curves for stocks, anticipated improvements in operating performance, or increased liquidity are related to the cross‐section of announcement or inclusion returns.

Suggested Citation

  • William B. Elliott & Bonnie F. Van Ness & Mark D. Walker & Richard S. Warr, 2006. "What Drives the S&P 500 Inclusion Effect? An Analytical Survey," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 35(4), pages 31-48, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:finmgt:v:35:y:2006:i:4:p:31-48
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-053X.2006.tb00158.x
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-053X.2006.tb00158.x
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    3. Nawal Seif Kassim & Roslily Ramlee & Salina Kassim, 2017. "Impact of Inclusion into and Exclusion from the Shariah Index on a Stock Price and Trading Volume: An Event Study Approach," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(2), pages 40-51.
    4. Honghui Chen & Vijay Singal & Robert F. Whitelaw, 2015. "Comovement Revisited," NBER Working Papers 21281, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Huseynov, Fariz & Sardarli, Sabuhi & Zhang, Wei, 2017. "Does index addition affect corporate tax avoidance?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 241-259.
    6. Danbolt, Jo & Hirst, Ian & Jones, Edward, 2018. "Gaming the FTSE 100 index," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 364-378.
    7. Chen, Honghui & Singal, Vijay & Whitelaw, Robert F., 2016. "Comovement revisited," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(3), pages 624-644.
    8. Chan, Kalok & Kot, Hung Wan & Tang, Gordon Y.N., 2013. "A comprehensive long-term analysis of S&P 500 index additions and deletions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 4920-4930.
    9. Ahluwalia, Eshan & Mishra, Ajay Kumar & Tripathy, Trilochan, 2020. "Institutional ownership, investor recognition and stock performance around index rebalancing: Evidence from Indian market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).
    10. Chen, Haiwei & Ngo, Thanh, 2017. "Leverage-based index revisions: The case of Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 16-34.
    11. Azevedo, Alcino & Karim, Mohamad & Gregoriou, Andros & Rhodes, Mark, 2014. "Stock price and volume effects associated with changes in the composition of the FTSE Bursa Malaysian KLCI," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 20-35.
    12. Karel Hrazdil, 2010. "S&P 500 index inclusion announcements: does the S&P committee tell us something new?," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 368-393, April.
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