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The Determinants of Foreign Currency Hedging: Does Foreign Currency Debt Induce a Bias?

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  • Ephraim Clark
  • Amrit Judge

Abstract

In this paper we use UK data to present strong empirical evidence that explains the mixed results in previous studies with respect to the effect of financial distress on the demand for corporate hedging. We build on recent studies that have identified a strong link between foreign currency (FC) debt use and leverage. Given this relationship, we show that using leverage variables as proxies for financial distress and the failure to distinguish between FC debt users and non‐users causes misleading inference. More specifically, when we partition our sample of FC hedgers into firms that use and do not use foreign debt, we show that leverage variables are significantly related to the FC hedging decision for firms that use FC debt either in isolation or in combination with FC derivatives but not for firms that only use FC derivatives. This suggests that FC debt users are influencing these results. However, we also find that other financial distress cost proxies with no obvious link to FC debt use are significant determinants in the corporate demand for FC hedging, including derivatives use.

Suggested Citation

  • Ephraim Clark & Amrit Judge, 2008. "The Determinants of Foreign Currency Hedging: Does Foreign Currency Debt Induce a Bias?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(3), pages 445-469, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:eufman:v:14:y:2008:i:3:p:445-469
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-036X.2007.00360.x
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    2. Maria João Jorge & Mário Gomes Augusto, 2011. "The Value Of Hedging Through Corporate Governance: A Literature Review And Directions For Future Research," Portuguese Journal of Management Studies, ISEG, Universidade de Lisboa, vol. 0(2), pages 113-130.
    3. Maurizio Michael Habib & Mark Joy, 2010. "Foreign-currency bonds: currency choice and the role of uncovered and covered interest parity," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(8), pages 601-626.
    4. Hadian, Azadeh & Adaoglu, Cahit, 2020. "The effects of financial and operational hedging on company value: The case of Malaysian multinationals," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    5. Paul Mizen & Frank Packer & Eli Remolona & Serafeim Tsoukas, 2014. "Capital structure and the issuance of corporate bonds in emerging Asia," Chapters, in: Iwan J. Azis & Hyun S. Shin (ed.), Global Shock, Risks, and Asian Financial Reform, chapter 13, pages 510-540, Edward Elgar Publishing.
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    7. Brown, M. & Ongena, S. & Yesin, P., 2008. "Currency Denomination of Bank Loans : Evidence from Small Firms in Transition Countries," Discussion Paper 2008-16, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    8. Paul Mizen & Frank Packer & Eli Remolona & Serafeim Tsoukas, 2012. "Why do firms issue abroad? Lessons from onshore and offshore corporate bond finance in Asian emerging markets," Discussion Papers 12/15, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    9. Benbouzid, Nadia & Mallick, Sushanta K. & Sousa, Ricardo M., 2017. "An international forensic perspective of the determinants of bank CDS spreads," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 60-70.
    10. Martin Brown & Steven Ongena & Pinar Yeşin, 2014. "Information Asymmetry and Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 56(1), pages 110-131, March.
    11. Gatopoulos, Georgios & Loubergé, Henri, 2013. "Combined use of foreign debt and currency derivatives under the threat of currency crises: The case of Latin American firms," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 54-75.
    12. Brown, Martin & Ongena, Steven & Yesin, Pinar, 2009. "Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 7540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Brown, Martin & Ongena, Steven & Yesin, Pinar, 2011. "Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in the transition economies," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 285-302, July.
    14. Håkan Jankensgård, 2015. "Does Centralisation of FX Derivative Usage Impact Firm Value?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 21(2), pages 309-332, March.
    15. Beer, Christian & Ongena, Steven & Peter, Marcel, 2010. "Borrowing in foreign currency: Austrian households as carry traders," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2198-2211, September.
    16. Nandy, Debarshi K., 2010. "Why do firms denominate bank loans in foreign currencies? Empirical evidence from Canada and U.K," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(6), pages 577-603, November.
    17. Katelijne A.E. Carbonez & Van Thi Tuong Nguyen & Piet Sercu, 2011. "Hedging with Two Futures Contracts: Simplicity Pays," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 17(5), pages 806-834, November.
    18. Choi, Young Mok & Park, Kunsu, 2019. "Does foreign currency-denominated debt affect dividend payout policy? Evidence from Korea," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 20-34.
    19. Marina Tkalec & Miroslav Verbič, 2013. "A new look into the prevalence of balance sheet or competitiveness effect of exchange rate depreciation in a highly euroised economy," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 225-240, June.
    20. Hidenobu Okuda & Daiju Aiba, 2018. "Determinants of Firms’ Capital Structure Decisions in Highly Dollarized Economies: Evidence from Cambodia," Working Papers 160, JICA Research Institute.
    21. Tom Aabo & Marianna Andryeyeva Hansen & Yaz Gulnur Muradoglu, 2015. "Foreign Debt Usage in Non†Financial Firms: a Horse Race between Operating and Accounting Exposure Hedging," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 21(3), pages 590-611, June.
    22. Hernández-Jiménez, Araceli & Venegas-Martínez, Francisco & Salazar Núñez, Héctor F., 2019. "Hedging exchange rate risks through installment options," Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación de la Escuela Superios de Economía del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, in: Moreno-García, Elena & Venegas-Martínez, Francisco & Baraya, Aristides R. (ed.), Tópicos Selectos sobre Inclusión y Educación Finnaciera en el Contexto Mexicano, volume 1, chapter 3, pages 107-140, Escuela Superior de Economía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional.

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