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The Impact of Institutional Differences on Derivatives Usage : A Comparative Study of US and Dutch Firms

Author

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  • Bodnar, G.M.
  • de Jong, A.

    (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)

  • Macrae, V.

Abstract

This paper tests the influence of institutional differences on risk management practices.Several survey studies have investigated derivatives usage for risk management purposes in the US (see, among others, Bodnar, Hayt, Marston and Smithson, 1995 and Bodnar, Hayt and Marston, 1996, 1998).In this paper, we compare derivative practices of US and Dutch firms.This comparison is interesting because the institutional setting for Dutch firms differs from the US setting with respect to shareholder orientation, international trade, disclosure regulation, and the reliance on financial markets.In a number of survey studies additional countries have been studied, such as New Zealand (Berkman, Bradbury and Magan, 1997), Sweden (Alkebäck and Hagelin, 1999) and Germany (Bodnar and Gebhardt, 1999).In contrast with these papers, we facilitate a comparison by applying a matching and a weighting strategy, which corrects for different distributions over industry and size classes in the Dutch and US samples.After these corrections, the remaining results can be attributed to institutional differences.We find that Dutch firms hedge more financial risk. Because of the greater openness of the Netherlands, Dutch firms experience far more foreign exchange exposure and hedge more currency risk.US firms have more concerns regarding derivative usage, which may be linked to the stricter disclosure requirements in the US.US firms also focus more on accounting earnings, which may be attributable to the shareholder orientation in the US versus the stakeholder orientation in the Netherlands.Whereas Dutch firms tend to rely on OTC-transactions, US firms use exchange-traded derivatives and therefore require a higher counter party rating for derivatives transactions. This distinction can be accredited to the differences in the financial environments between the US and the Netherlands.The aforementioned results indicate that institutional differences between the US and the Netherlands have a significant effect on the risk management practices and derivatives use of US and Dutch firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Bodnar, G.M. & de Jong, A. & Macrae, V., 2001. "The Impact of Institutional Differences on Derivatives Usage : A Comparative Study of US and Dutch Firms," Discussion Paper 2001-62, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:tiu:tiucen:03c666d1-7640-49e1-ac16-a60788c8c0e5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stulz, René M., 1984. "Optimal Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(02), pages 127-140, June.
    2. Loderer, Claudio & Pichler, Karl, 2000. "Firms, do you know your currency risk exposure? Survey results," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 317-344, November.
    3. Boersma, J. & Veld, C.H., 1995. "Het gebruik van financiële derivaten door grote Nederlandse ondernemingen," Research Memorandum FEW 700, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    5. Walter Dolde, 1993. "The Trajectory Of Corporate Financial Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 6(3), pages 33-41.
    6. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Gordon M. Bodnar & Gregory S. Hayt & Richard C. Marston, 1998. "1998 Wharton Survey of Financial Risk Management by US Non-Financial Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(4), Winter.
    8. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
    9. Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. " Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-1658, December.
    10. Gordon M. Bodnar & Gregory S. Hayt & Richard C. Marston, 1996. "1995 Wharton Survey of Derivatives Usage by US Non-Financial Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(4), Winter.
    11. Marc J. K. De Ceuster & Edward Durinck & Eddy Laveren & Jozef Lodewyckx, 2000. "A survey into the use of derivatives by large non‐financial firms operating in Belgium," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 6(3), pages 301-318.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hagelin, Niclas & Pramborg, Bengt, 2006. "Empirical evidence concerning incentives to hedge transaction and translation exposures," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 142-159, April.
    2. Fabling, Richard & Grimes, Arthur, 2008. "Do Exporters Cut the Hedge? Who Hedges, When and Why?," Occasional Papers 08/2, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
    3. repec:wsi:rpbfmp:v:20:y:2017:i:04:n:s0219091517500278 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gordon M. Bodnar, 2007. "The exchange rate exposure puzzle," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(9), pages 642-666, August.
    5. Brozynski, Torsten & Menkhoff, Lukas & Schmidt, Ulrich, 2003. "The Use of Momentum, Contrarian and Buy-&-Hold Strategies: Survey Evidence from Fund Managers," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-290, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    6. Allayannis, George & Lel, Ugur & Miller, Darius P., 2012. "The use of foreign currency derivatives, corporate governance, and firm value around the world," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 65-79.
    7. Pramborg, Bengt, 2005. "Foreign exchange risk management by Swedish and Korean nonfinancial firms: A comparative survey," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 343-366, June.
    8. Luis Berggrun, 2005. "Currency Hedging for a Dutch Investor: The Case of Pension Funds and Insurers," DNB Working Papers 054, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    9. Björn Döhring, 2008. "Hedging and invoicing strategies to reduce exchange rate exposure - a euro-area perspective," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 299, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    10. Emira Kozarevic & Meldina Kokorovic Jukan & Beriz Civic, 2014. "The Use of Financial Derivatives in Emerging Market Economies: An Empirical Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina's Non-Financial Firms," Research in World Economy, Research in World Economy, Sciedu Press, vol. 5(1), pages 39-48, March.
    11. Ricardo Santos & Samuel Pereira & Elísio Brandão, 2016. "Transfer Pricing Aggressiveness And Financial Derivatives Practices: Empirical Evidences From United Kingdom," FEP Working Papers 583, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    12. Donohoe, Michael P., 2015. "The economic effects of financial derivatives on corporate tax avoidance," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 1-24.
    13. repec:eee:quaeco:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:128-136 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:bap:journl:180103 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Fabling, Richard & Grimes, Arthur, 2010. "Cutting the hedge: Exporters' dynamic currency hedging behaviour," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 241-253, June.
    16. Bartram, Söhnke M., 2004. "The Use of Options in Corporate Risk Management," MPRA Paper 6663, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    risk management; hedging; derivatives;

    JEL classification:

    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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