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Trust, Inequality And The Size Of The Co-Operative Sector: Cross-Country Evidence


  • Derek C. Jones
  • Panu Kalmi


We provide the first empirical evidence on the determinants of differences in the size of the cooperative sector around the world. Our key data have been recently released by the ICA and are integrated with other standard sources, such as data from the World Values surveys. In our empirical work we concentrate on the links between inequality and trust and cooperative incidence and undertake selectivity correction estimates as well as a series of robustness checks. Consistent with theory we find strong support for the proposition that trust plays a causal role in accounting for differences in co-operative incidence. Also consistent with theory, we find support (albeit much weaker) for the role of inequality. Further support for our findings flows from our estimates for conventional, listed firms, where we do not find that trust and inequality play similar roles in accounting for the variation in the incidence of large listed firms across countries. Copyright © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © CIRIEC 2009.

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  • Derek C. Jones & Panu Kalmi, 2009. "Trust, Inequality And The Size Of The Co-Operative Sector: Cross-Country Evidence," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 80(2), pages 165-195, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:annpce:v:80:y:2009:i:2:p:165-195

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gathon, H. -J. & Pestieau, P., 1995. "Decomposing efficiency into its managerial and its regulatory components: The case of European railways," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 500-507, February.
    2. Bernadette Biatour & Mathieu Lefebvre & Sergio Pereleman & Pierre Pestieau, 2005. "Faut-il un ou plusieurs indicateurs d'exclusion sociale?," CREPP Working Papers 0503, Centre de Recherche en Economie Publique et de la Population (CREPP) (Research Center on Public and Population Economics) HEC-Management School, University of Liège.
    3. van Doorslaer, Eddy & Wagstaff, Adam & Bleichrodt, Han & Calonge, Samuel & Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Gerfin, Michael & Geurts, Jose & Gross, Lorna & Hakkinen, Unto & Leu, Robert E., 1997. "Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 93-112, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Luigino Bruni & Giovanni Ferri, 2015. "oes Cooperativeness Promote Happiness? Cross-country Evidence," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 107, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    2. Natália Monteiro & Geoff Stewart, 2015. "Scale, Scope and Survival: A Comparison of Cooperative and Capitalist Modes of Production," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 47(1), pages 91-118, August.
    3. Panu Kalmi, 2013. "Catching a wave: the formation of co-operatives in Finnish regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 295-313, June.
    4. Derek C. Jones & Panu Kalmi, 2013. "Cooperative enterprise," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Reciprocity and Social Enterprise, chapter 8, pages 85-93 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Jesús CLEMENTE & Millán DIAZ-FONCEA & Carmen MARCUELLO & Marcos SANSO-NAVARRO, 2012. "The Wage Gap Between Cooperative And Capitalist Firms: Evidence From Spain," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 83(3), pages 337-356, September.
    6. Carmen Marcuello & Pablo Nachar-Calderón, 2012. "Sociedad cooperativa y socio cooperativo: propuesta de sus funciones objetivo," Documentos de Trabajo dt2012-02, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    7. John Pencavel, 2013. "Worker cooperatives and democratic governance," Chapters,in: Handbook of Economic Organization, chapter 24 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Périlleux, Anaïs & Szafarz, Ariane, 2015. "Women Leaders and Social Performance: Evidence from Financial Cooperatives in Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 437-452.
    9. Millán Díaz-Foncea & Carmen Marcuello, 2014. "The Relation between Total Employment and Cooperative Employment: A Convergence and Causality Analysis," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 71-92, March.
    10. Carmen Marcuello Servós & Pablo Nachar Calderón, 2013. "La sociedad cooperativa: motivación y coordinación. Un análisis desde las teorías económicas de las empresa y la economía social
      [The cooperative firm: motivation and coordination. An analysis from
      ," REVESCO: Revista de estudios cooperativos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Escuela de Estudios Cooperativos, issue 110, pages 192-222.
    11. Anaïs PERILLEUX & Ariane SZAFARZ, 2014. "Female Managers in Hybrid Organizations: Evidence from Financial Cooperatives in Senegal," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2014018, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    12. Périlleux, Anaïs & Szafarz, Ariane, 2015. "Women Leaders and Social Performance: Evidence from Financial Cooperatives in Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 437-452.
    13. Arando, Saioa & Gago, Monica & Podivinsky, Jan M. & Stewart, Geoff, 2012. "Do labour-managed firms benefit from agglomeration?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 193-200.

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