Scale, Scope and Survival: A Comparison of Cooperative and Capitalist Modes of Production
This paper draws on a comprehensive data set from Portugal to investigate the activities, internal characteristics and survival prospects of cooperatives and capitalist enterprises. Consistent with theory, high levels of market concentration and low entry costs were shown to be conducive to cooperatives. Cooperatives were found to be, on average, older and to operate with a larger, more highly educated and more productive labour forces than their capitalist counterparts. Finally, we show that cooperatives have a markedly higher probability of survival than capitalist enterprises, even after controlling for industry and fi rm characteristics.
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