IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Sensitivity analysis for the determinants of investment appraisal


  • Shujahat Haider Hashmi

    (School of Economics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Chia)

  • Munawar Hussain

    (Riphah International University Islamabad, Pakistan)

  • Raja Muhammad Ahsan Ilyas

    (Islamic University AJK, Pakistan)

  • Muhammad Asif Khan

    (School of Economics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Chia, University of Kotli)


This study empirically conducts the sensitivity analysis for the determinants of investment appraisal of Pakistani non-financial firms listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) across sectors. We employed OLS regression along with common effect and fixed effect model on panel data pertaining to 60 non-listed firms at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) over the period from 2003 to 2015. Empirical results document that leverage, growth, dynamism and inflation have strong positive associations with investment appraisal, however, munificence and GDP influence the process conversely. The study provides useful framework for potential investors to evaluate all these vital factors besides conventional mechanism, prior to making investment decision. Policy makers for non-financial sectors may get benefit by apply this diagnostic model to evaluate prospective investment projects for the most optimistic outcome. Corporate finance literature reveals that there is no formal evidence of determinants of capital expenditure at different levels of economic recessions; therefore, the study is pioneer effort to identify the significant determinants of investment appraisal of Pakistani listed non-financial firms across sectors, eventually, a useful contribution in existing literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Shujahat Haider Hashmi & Munawar Hussain & Raja Muhammad Ahsan Ilyas & Muhammad Asif Khan, 2017. "Sensitivity analysis for the determinants of investment appraisal," The Audit Financiar journal, Chamber of Financial Auditors of Romania, vol. 15(148), pages 686-686.
  • Handle: RePEc:aud:audfin:v:15:y:2017:i:148:p:686

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Timothy J. Brailsford & Daniel Yeoh, 2004. "Agency Problems and Capital Expenditure Announcements," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(2), pages 223-256, April.
    2. Klammer, Thomas, 1972. "Empirical Evidence of the Adoption of Sophisticated Capital Budgeting Techniques," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(3), pages 387-397, July.
    3. Kayo, Eduardo K. & Kimura, Herbert, 2011. "Hierarchical determinants of capital structure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 358-371, February.
    4. Mahmoud Moeinaddin & Shahnaz Nayebzadeh & Masoumeh Ghasemi, 2013. "The Relationship between Product Market Competition and Capital Structure of the Selected Industries of the Tehran Stock Exchange," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 3(3), pages 221-233, July.
    5. Roy L. Simerly & Mingfang Li, 2000. "Environmental dynamism, capital structure and performance: a theoretical integration and an empirical test," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 31-49, January.
    6. Stefanie Haller & Liam Murphy, 2012. "Corporate Expenditure on Environmental Protection," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 51(2), pages 277-296, February.
    7. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    8. Md. Faruk Hossain & Md. Ayub Ali, 2012. "Impact of Firm Specific Factors on Capital Structure Decision: An Empirical Study of Bangladeshi Companies," International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Computer Science Journals (CSC Journals), vol. 3(4), pages 163-182, August.
    9. Laurence Booth & Varouj Aivazian & Asli Demirguc‐Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2001. "Capital Structures in Developing Countries," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 87-130, February.
    10. Muhammad Farooq Arby, 2001. "Long-Run Trend, Business Cycles and Short-Run Shocks in Real GDP," SBP Working Paper Series 01, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department.
    11. Ran Lu-Andrews & Yin Yu-Thompson, 2015. "CEO inside debt, asset tangibility, and investment," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 11(4), pages 451-479, September.
    12. Dirk Brounen & Piet Eichholtz, 2004. "Development Involvement and Property Share Performance: International Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 79-97, July.
    13. McConnell, John J. & Muscarella, Chris J., 1985. "Corporate capital expenditure decisions and the market value of the firm," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 399-422, September.
    14. Arby, Muhammad Farooq, 2001. "Long-run trend, Business Cycle & Short-run shocks in real GDP," MPRA Paper 4929, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Hirshleifer, David & Suh, Yoon, 1992. "Risk, managerial effort, and project choice," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 308-345, September.
    16. Stephen H. Penman, 2009. "Accounting for Intangible Assets: There is Also an Income Statement," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 45(3), pages 358-371, September.
    17. Michael J. Barclay & Clifford W. Smith, 2005. "The Capital Structure Puzzle: The Evidence Revisited," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 17(1), pages 8-17, January.
    18. Raida CHAKROUN & Hamadi MATOUSSI, 2012. "Determinants of the Extent of Voluntary Disclosure in the Annual Reports of the Tunisian Firms," Journal of Accounting and Management Information Systems, Faculty of Accounting and Management Information Systems, The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, vol. 11(3), pages 335-370, September.
    19. Elliott, J W, 1973. "Theories of Corporate Investment Behavior Revisited," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 195-207, March.
    20. Binder, John J & Chaput, J Scott, 1996. "A Positive Analysis of Corporate Capital Budgeting Practices," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 245-257, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Jacek Jaworski & Leszek Czerwonka, 2021. "Determinants of Enterprises’ Capital Structure in Energy Industry: Evidence from European Union," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(7), pages 1-21, March.
    2. Rana El Bahsh & Ali Alattar & Aziz N. Yusuf, 2018. "Firm, Industry and Country Level Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Jordan," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 8(2), pages 175-190.
    3. Idrees Liaqat & Muhammad Asif Khan & József Popp & Judit Oláh, 2021. "Industry, Firm, and Country Level Dynamics of Capital Structure: A Case of Pakistani Firms," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-17, September.
    4. Miguel Acedo-Ramírez & Juan Ayala-Calvo & José Rodríguez-Osés, 2013. "Capital structure of small companies in the Spanish footwear sector: relevant factors," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 155-173, June.
    5. Nicolas Griesshaber, 2017. "Towards a more comprehensive understanding of corporate leverage ratios," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Uses of central balance sheet data offices' information, volume 45, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Athenia Bongani Sibindi, 2018. "Determinants of Bank Capital Structure: Evidence from South Africa," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 14(5), pages 108-126, OCTOBER.
    7. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller, 2019. "Determinants of Optimal Capital Structure and Speed of Adjustment: Evidence from the U.S. ICT Sector," Working papers 2019-06, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    8. Mohina Saxena & Surajit Bhattacharyya, 2022. "Industry dynamics and capital structure choice: Evidence from Indian manufacturing firms," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 43(3), pages 829-845, April.
    9. Aamer Shahzad & Muhammad Azeem & Mian Sajid Nazir & Xuan Vinh Vo & Nguyen T. M. Linh, 2021. "The determinants of capital structure: Evidence from SAARC countries," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 6471-6487, October.
    10. Yildirim, Ramazan & Masih, Mansur & Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath, 2018. "Determinants of capital structure: evidence from Shari'ah compliant and non-compliant firms," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 198-219.
    11. Yun Shen & Damien Wallace & Krishna Reddy & Vikash Ramiah, 2022. "An investigation of CEO characteristics on firm performance," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 62(3), pages 3563-3607, September.
    12. Mirza Muhammad Naseer & Muhammad Asif Khan & József Popp & Judit Oláh, 2021. "Firm, Industry and Macroeconomics Dynamics of Stock Returns: A Case of Pakistan Non-Financial Sector," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(5), pages 1-18, April.
    13. Etim Uwah, Uwem, 2019. "Capital Expenditure Decisions And Long Term Value Of The Firm: Evidence From Nigerian Manufacturing Companies," International Journal of Contemporary Accounting Issues-IJCAI (formerly International Journal of Accounting & Finance IJAF), The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN), vol. 8(1), pages 152-169, June.
    14. Urionabarrenetxea, Sara & Garcia-Merino, Jose Domingo & San-Jose, Leire & Retolaza, Jose Luis, 2018. "Living with zombie companies: Do we know where the threat lies?," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 408-420.
    15. Kayo, Eduardo K. & Kimura, Herbert, 2011. "Hierarchical determinants of capital structure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 358-371, February.
    16. Haitham A. Al‐Zoubi & Jennifer A. O'Sullivan & Aktham I. Al‐Maghyereh & Brendan J. Lambe, 2023. "Disentangling Sentiment from Cyclicality in Firm Capital Structure," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 59(2), pages 570-605, June.
    17. Khawaja, Mohsin & Bhatti, M. Ishaq & Ashraf, Dawood, 2019. "Ownership and control in a double decision framework for raising capital," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    18. Razali Haron & Khairunisah Ibrahim & Fauzias Mat Nor & Izani Ibrahim, 2013. "Factors Affecting Speed of Adjustment to Target Leverage: Malaysia Evidence," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 14(2), pages 243-262, June.
    19. Luca Riccetti & Alberto Russo & Mauro Gallegati, 2015. "An agent based decentralized matching macroeconomic model," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 10(2), pages 305-332, October.
    20. Surenderrao Komera & P. J. Jijo Lukose, 2016. "Heterogeneity and Asymmetry in Speed of Leverage Adjustment: The Indian Experience," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 19(03), pages 1-26, September.

    More about this item


    Capital expenditure; investment appraisal; sensitivity analysis; munificence; HHI;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • M41 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Accounting - - - Accounting
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aud:audfin:v:15:y:2017:i:148:p:686. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Dumitru Valentin Florentin (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.