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Willingness to Pay for Foods with Varying Production Traits and Levels of Genetically Modified Content


  • Bernard, John C.
  • Gifford, Katie
  • Santora, Kristin
  • Bernard, Daria J.


This study examined consumer willingness to pay for first- and second-generation genetically modified (GM) and organic foods and for non-GM foods, dependent on tolerance for GM content. Data from a survey of students were examined using a heteroskedastic two-limit Tobit model. Results showed consumers were willing to pay significantly more for organic and second-generation foods over first-generation GM foods, which suggests a niche market for second-generation GM foods may be possible. For non-GM foods, consumers were indifferent between a 100- and 99-percent threshold, but did not view 95-percent non-GM foods as more valuable than foods with unknown GM.

Suggested Citation

  • Bernard, John C. & Gifford, Katie & Santora, Kristin & Bernard, Daria J., 2009. "Willingness to Pay for Foods with Varying Production Traits and Levels of Genetically Modified Content," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 40(2), July.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:jlofdr:99780

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Costa-Font, Montserrat & Gil, José M. & Traill, W. Bruce, 2008. "Consumer acceptance, valuation of and attitudes towards genetically modified food: Review and implications for food policy," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 99-111, April.
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