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Liquidity, volatility, and flights to safety in the U.S. treasury market: evidence from a new class of dynamic order book models

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  • Robert Engle
  • Michael Fleming
  • Eric Ghysels
  • Giang Nguyen

Abstract

We propose a new class of dynamic order book models that allow us to 1) study episodes of extreme low liquidity and 2) unite liquidity and volatility in one framework through which their joint dynamics can be examined. Liquidity and volatility in the U.S. Treasury securities market are analyzed around the time of economic announcements, throughout the recent financial crisis, and during flight-to-safety episodes. We document that Treasury market depth declines sharply during the crisis, accompanied by increased price volatility, but that trading activity seems unaffected until after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy. Our models’ key finding is that price volatility and depth at the best bid and ask prices exhibit a negative feedback relationship and that each becomes more persistent during the crisis. Lastly, we characterize the Treasury market during flights to safety as having much lower market depth, along with higher trading volume and greater price uncertainty.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 590.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:590

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Keywords: Liquidity (Economics) ; Government securities ; Treasury bonds ; Financial crises ; Bonds - Prices;

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References

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  1. Balduzzi, Pierluigi & Elton, Edwin J. & Green, T. Clifton, 2001. "Economic News and Bond Prices: Evidence from the U.S. Treasury Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(04), pages 523-543, December.
  2. Wolfgang Karl Härdle & Nikolaus Hautsch & Andrija Mihoci, 2009. "Modelling and Forecasting Liquidity Supply Using Semiparametric Factor Dynamics," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-044, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  3. Hautsch, Nikolaus & Huang, Ruihong, 2009. "The market impact of a limit order," CFS Working Paper Series 2009/23, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
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  6. Lieven Baele, 2010. "The Determinants of Stock and Bond Return Comovements," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(6), pages 2374-2428, June.
  7. Ranaldo, Angelo, 2004. "Order aggressiveness in limit order book markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 53-74, January.
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  9. Bruce Mizrach & Christopher J. Neely, 2006. "The transition to electronic communications networks in the secondary treasury market," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 527-542.
  10. Robert F. Engle & Jeffrey R. Russell, 1998. "Autoregressive Conditional Duration: A New Model for Irregularly Spaced Transaction Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1127-1162, September.
  11. Alessandro Beber & Michael W. Brandt & Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 2006. "Flight-to-Quality or Flight-to-Liquidity? Evidence From the Euro-Area Bond Market," NBER Working Papers 12376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. T. Clifton Green, 2004. "Economic News and the Impact of Trading on Bond Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(3), pages 1201-1234, 06.
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  14. Hanno Lustig, 2011. "Why Does the Treasury Issue TIPS? The TIPS-Treasury Bond Puzzle," 2011 Meeting Papers 1443, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  15. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre & Spatt, Chester, 1995. " An Empirical Analysis of the Limit Order Book and the Order Flow in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1655-89, December.
  16. Michael Fleming & Bruce Mizrach, 2008. "The Microstructure of a U.S. Treasury ECN: The Brokertec Platform," Departmental Working Papers 200803, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  17. Naes, Randi & Skjeltorp, Johannes A., 2006. "Order book characteristics and the volume-volatility relation: Empirical evidence from a limit order market," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 408-432, November.
  18. Robert Engle, 2002. "New frontiers for arch models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 425-446.
  19. Michael W. Brandt & Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 2004. "Price Discovery in the U.S. Treasury Market: The Impact of Orderflow and Liquidity on the Yield Curve," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(6), pages 2623-2654, December.
  20. Bruce Mizrach & Christopher J. Neely, 2007. "The microstructure of the U.S. treasury market," Working Papers 2007-052, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  21. Michael J. Fleming & Eli M. Remolona, 1997. "What moves the bond market?," Research Paper 9706, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  22. Hee-Joon Ahn, 2001. "Limit Orders, Depth, and Volatility: Evidence from the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 767-788, 04.
  23. Jiang, George J. & Lo, Ingrid & Verdelhan, Adrien, 2011. "Information Shocks, Liquidity Shocks, Jumps, and Price Discovery: Evidence from the U.S. Treasury Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(02), pages 527-551, April.
  24. Baur, Dirk G. & Lucey, Brian M., 2009. "Flights and contagion--An empirical analysis of stock-bond correlations," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 339-352, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Baele, Lieven & Bekaert, Geert & Inghelbrecht, Koen & Wei, Min, 2014. "Flights to Safety," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2014-46, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Krishnan, R. & Mishra, Vinod, 2013. "Intraday liquidity patterns in Indian stock market," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 99-114.

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