SME Performance, Innovation and Networking Evidence on Complementarities for a Local Economic System
AbstractThe paper addresses the relevancy of networking activities and R&D as main drivers of productivity performance and ouput innovation, for small and medium enterprises (SME) playing in a local economic system. Given the intangible nature of many techno organisational innovation and networking strategies, original recent survey data for manufacturing and services are exploited. The aim is to provide new evidence on the complementarity relationships concerning different networking activities and R&D in a local SME oriented system in Northern Italy. We first introduce a methodological framework to empirically test complementarity among R&D and networking, in a discrete setting. Secondly, we consequently present empirical evidence on productivity drivers and on complementarity between R&D and networking strategies, with respect to firm productivity and process/product output innovation. R&D is a main driver of innovation and productivity, even without networking. This may signify, in association with the evidence on complementarity, that firm expenditures on R&D are a primary driver for performance. The complementarity with networking is a consequential step. Networking by itself cannot thus play a role in stimulating productivity and innovation. It can be a complementary factor in situations where cooperation and networking are needed to achieve economies of scale and/or to merge and integrate diverse skills, technologies and competencies. This is compatible with a framework where networking is the public good part of an impure public good wherein R&D plays the part of the private-led driving force towards structural break from the business as usual scenario. Managers and policy makers should be aware that in order to exploit asset complementarity, possibly transformed into competitive advantages, both R&D and networking are to be sustained and favoured. our evidence suggests that R&D may be a single main driver of performance. Since R&D expenditures are associated with firm size, a policy sustain is to be directed towards firm enlargement. After a certain threshold firms have the force to increase expenditures. The size effect is nevertheless non monotonous. Then, but not least important, for the majority of firms still remaining under a critical size threshold, policy incentives should be directed to R&D in connection with networking, through which a virtuous circle may arise. It is worth noting that it is not networking as such the main engine. Networking elements are crucially linked to innovation dynamics; it is nevertheless innovation that explains and drives networking, and not the often claimed mere existence of local spillovers or of a civic associative culture in the territory. Such public good factors exist but are likely to evolve with and be sustained by firm innovative dynamics.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei in its series Working Papers with number 2007.50.
Date of creation: Apr 2007
Date of revision:
Firm Competitiveness; Innovation; R&D; Networking; Complementarity; Local Economic System;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
- L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
- O3 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights
- O14 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
- Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-06-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-EFF-2007-06-02 (Efficiency & Productivity)
- NEP-ENT-2007-06-02 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-INO-2007-06-02 (Innovation)
- NEP-IPR-2007-06-02 (Intellectual Property Rights)
- NEP-MIC-2007-06-02 (Microeconomics)
- NEP-SOC-2007-06-02 (Social Norms & Social Capital)
- NEP-TID-2007-06-02 (Technology & Industrial Dynamics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fritsch, Michael & Franke, Grit, 2004. "Innovation, regional knowledge spillovers and R&D cooperation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 245-255, March.
- J. Vicente Blanes & Isabel Busom, 2004.
"WHO PARTICIPATES IN R&D SUBSIDY PROGRAMS?. The case of Spanish Manufacturing Firms,"
wpdea0407, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Blanes, J. Vicente & Busom, Isabel, 2004. "Who participates in R&D subsidy programs?: The case of Spanish manufacturing firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1459-1476, December.
- Lisa M Lynch & Sandra E Black, 2002.
"Beyond the Incidence of Training: Evidence from a National Employers Survey,"
02-05, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Lisa M. Lynch & Sandra E. Black, 1995. "Beyond the Incidence of Training: Evidence from a National Employers Survey," NBER Working Papers 5231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Keld Laursen & Nicolai J. Foss, 2003. "New human resource management practices, complementarities and the impact on innovation performance," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(2), pages 243-263, March.
- Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2003.
"R&D Cooperation Between Firms and Universities: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgian Manufacturing,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3951, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Veugelers, Reinhilde & Cassiman, Bruno, 2005. "R&D cooperation between firms and universities. Some empirical evidence from Belgian manufacturing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(5-6), pages 355-379, June.
- Arora, Ashish, 1996. "Testing for complementarities in reduced-form regressions: A note," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 51-55, January.
- Langlois, Richard N. & Robertson, Paul L., 1992. "Networks and innovation in a modular system: Lessons from the microcomputer and stereo component industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 297-313, August.
- Nicola Matteucci & Mary O'Mahony & Catherine Robinson & Thomas Zwick, 2005. "Productivity, Workplace Performance And Ict: Industry And Firm-Level Evidence For Europe And The Us," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 52(3), pages 359-386, 07.
- Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2002.
"Information Technology, Workplace Organization, And The Demand For Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 339-376, February.
- Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 1999. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7136, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- S Black & L Lynch, 1997.
"How to Compete: The Impact of Workplace Practices and Information Technology on Productivity,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0376, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 2001. "How To Compete: The Impact Of Workplace Practices And Information Technology On Productivity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 434-445, August.
- S. Black & L. Lynch, 1997. "How to compete: the impact of workplace practices and information technology on productivity," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20298, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Lisa M Lynch & Sandra E Black, 2002. "How to Compete: The Impact of Workplace Practices and Information Technology on Productivity," Working Papers 02-04, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 1997. "How to Compete: The Impact of Workplace Practices and Information Technology on Productivity," NBER Working Papers 6120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fritsch, M. & Lukas, R., 1998.
"Who Cooperates on R & D ?,"
98/12, Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Teece, David J., 1982. "Towards an economic theory of the multiproduct firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 39-63, March.
- Susan Athey & Scott Stern, 1998. "An Empirical Framework for Testing Theories About Complimentarity in Organizational Design," NBER Working Papers 6600, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lokshin,Boris & Carree,Martin & Belderbos,René, 2004. "Testing for complementarity and substitutability in case of multiple practices," Research Memorandum 002, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
- Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 2000.
"What's Driving the New Economy: The Benefits of Workplace Innovation,"
NBER Working Papers
7479, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 2004. "What's driving the new economy?: the benefits of workplace innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages F97-F116, 02.
- Sandra E Black & Lisa M Lynch, 2002. "What's Driving the New Economy? The Benefits of Workplace Innovation," Working Papers 02-03, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 2003. "What's driving the new economy?: the benefits of workplace innovation," Working Paper Series 2003-23, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 2001. "What's driving the new economy? The benefits of workplace innovation," Staff Reports 118, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Lorraine Dearden & Howard Reed & John Van Reenen, 2006.
"The Impact of Training on Productivity and Wages: Evidence from British Panel Data,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 68(4), pages 397-421, 08.
- Lorraine Dearden & Howard Reed & John Van Reenen, 2005. "The impact of training on productivity and wages : evidence from British panel data," Economic History Working Papers 779, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
- Lorraine Dearden & Howard Reed & John Van Reenen, 2005. "The impact of training on productivity and wages: evidence from British panel data," IFS Working Papers W05/16, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Lorraine Dearden & Howard Reed & John Van Reenen, 2005. "The Impact of Training on Productivity and Wages: Evidence from British Panel Data," CEP Discussion Papers dp0674, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin A & Diederen, Bert & Lokshin, Boris & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2003.
"Heterogeneity in R&D Cooperation Strategies,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4021, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Teece, David J., 1996. "Firm organization, industrial structure, and technological innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 193-224, November.
- Cainelli, Giulio & Mancinelli, Susanna & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2007. "Social capital and innovation dynamics in district-based local systems," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 932-948, December.
- Luigi Marengo & Giovanni Dosi, 2003.
"Division of Labor, Organizational Coordination and Market Mechanism in Collective Problem-Solving,"
LEM Papers Series
2003/04, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
- Marengo, Luigi & Dosi, Giovanni, 2005. "Division of labor, organizational coordination and market mechanisms in collective problem-solving," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 303-326, October.
- Ballot, Gerard & Fakhfakh, Fathi & Taymaz, Erol, 2001. "Firms' human capital, R&D and performance: a study on French and Swedish firms," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 443-462, September.
- Jens Fr¯slev Christensen, 2002. "Corporate strategy and the management of innovation and technology," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 263-288.
- Nooteboom, Bart, 1999. "Innovation, Learning and Industrial Organisation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 127-50, March.
- Ichniowski, Casey & Shaw, Kathryn & Prennushi, Giovanna, 1997. "The Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Productivity: A Study of Steel Finishing Lines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 291-313, June.
- Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin Hitt, 1997.
"Information Technology as a Factor of Production: The Role of Differences Among Firms,"
Working Paper Series
201, MIT Center for Coordination Science.
- Brynjolfsson, Erik. & Hitt, Lorin M., 1994. "Information technology as a factor of production : the role of differences among firms," Working papers 3715-94. CCSTR ; #173., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Topkis Donald M., 1995. "Comparative Statics of the Firm," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 370-401, December.
- Mancinelli Susanna & Mazzanti Massimiliano, 2004. "Agents Cooperation and Network Sustainability: A Note on a Microeconomic Approach to Social Capital," Economia politica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 299-322.
- Wulong Gu & Jianmin Tang, 2004. "Link between innovation and productivity in Canadian manufacturing industries," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(7), pages 671-686.
- Langlois, Richard N., 2002. "Modularity in technology and organization," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 19-37, September.
- Alex Bryson & John Forth & Simon Kirby, 2005. "High-Involvement Management Practices, Trade Union Representation And Workplace Performance In Britain," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 52(3), pages 451-491, 07.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (barbara racah).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.