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The Economic Consequences of "Brain Drain" of the Best and Brightest: Microeconomic Evidence from Five Countries

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  • John Gibson

    ()
    (University of Waikato)

  • David McKenzie

    ()
    (World Bank)

Abstract

Brain drain has long been a common concern for migrant-sending countries, particularly for small countries where high-skilled emigration rates are highest. However, while economic theory suggests a number of possible benefits, in addition to costs, from skilled emigration, the evidence base on many of these is very limited. Moreover, the lessons from case studies of benefits to China and India from skilled emigration may not be relevant to much smaller countries. This paper presents the results of innovative surveys which tracked academic high-achievers from five countries to wherever they moved in the world in order to directly measure at the micro level the channels through which high-skilled emigration affects the sending country. The results show that there are very high levels of emigration and of return migration among the very highly skilled; the income gains to the best and brightest from migrating are very large, and an order of magnitude or more greater than any other effect; there are large benefits from migration in terms of postgraduate education; most high-skilled migrants from poorer countries send remittances; but that involvement in trade and foreign direct investment is a rare occurrence. There is considerable knowledge flow from both current and return migrants about job and study opportunities abroad, but little net knowledge sharing from current migrants to home country governments or businesses. Finally, the fiscal costs vary considerably across countries, and depend on the extent to which governments rely on progressive income taxation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London in its series CReAM Discussion Paper Series with number 1018.

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Date of creation: Aug 2010
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Handle: RePEc:crm:wpaper:1018

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Keywords: Brain drain; Brain Gain; Highly Skilled Migration;

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References

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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. The Economic Consequences of â??Brain Drainâ?
    by Ariel Goldring in Free Market Mojo on 2010-09-05 12:16:06
Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
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Cited by:
  1. John Gibson & David McKenzie, 2013. "Scientific Mobility and Knowledge Networks in High Emigration Countries: Evidence from the Pacific," Working Papers in Economics 13/02, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
  2. Michael Clemens, Colum Graham, and Stephen Howes, 2014. "Skill Development and Regional Mobility: Lessons from the Australia-Pacific Technical College - Working Paper 370," Working Papers 370, Center for Global Development.
  3. Bénassy, Jean-Pascal & Brezis, Elise S., 2013. "Brain drain and development traps," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 15-22.
  4. Chiara Franzoni & Giuseppe Scellato & Paula Stephan, 2012. "The Mover's Advantage: Scientific Performance of Mobile Academics," NBER Working Papers 18577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Poot, Jacques & Roskruge, Matthew, 2013. "Internationalisation of Education and Returns in the Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 7696, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Dean Yang, 2011. "Migrant Remittances," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 129-52, Summer.
  7. Michael Clemens and David McKenzie, 2014. "Why Don't Remittances Appear to Affect Growth? - Working Paper 366," Working Papers 366, Center for Global Development.
  8. Yaw Nyarko, 2011. "The Returns to the Brain Drain and Brain Circulation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Computations Using Data from Ghana," NBER Working Papers 16813, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Berlinschi, Ruxanda & Schokkaert, Jeroen & Swinnen, Johan, 2013. "When drains and gains coincide: Migration and international football performance," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 1-14.
  10. Commander, Simon & Nikolaychuk, Olexandr & Vikhrov, Dmytro, 2013. "Migration from Ukraine: Brawn or Brain? New Survey Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 7348, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Ernest Miguélez, 2014. "Inventor Diasporas and the Internalionalization of Technology," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1425, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  12. Gibson, John & McKenzie, David, 2011. "Eight Questions about Brain Drain," IZA Discussion Papers 5730, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Kuschminder, Katie & Siegel, Melissa, 2012. "Highly skilled temporary return, technological change and Innovation: The Case of the TRQN Project in Afghanistan," MERIT Working Papers 017, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  14. Michael Clemens and Timothy N. Ogden, 2014. "Migration as a Strategy for Household Finance: A Research Agenda on Remittances, Payments, and Development- Working Paper 354," Working Papers 354, Center for Global Development.
  15. Sona Schovankova, 2013. "Determinants of the Spatial Distribution of Foreign Empolyees on Different Skilled Positions: The Case of the Czech Republic," DANUBE: Law and Economics Review, European Association Comenius - EACO, issue 2, pages 115-139, June.

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