Assessing the impact of national antibiotic campaigns in Europe
AbstractBecause of evidence of causal association between antibiotic use and bacterial resistance, the implementation of national policies has emerged as a interesting tool for controlling and reversing bacterial resistance. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of public policies on antibiotic use in Europe using a differences-in-differences approach. Comparable data on systemic administered antibiotics in 21 European countries are available for a 11-years panel between 1997 and 2007. Data on national campaigns are drawn from the public health literature. We estimate an econometric model of antibiotic consumption with country fixed effects and control for the main socioeconomic and epidemiological factors. Lagged values and the instrumental variables approach are applied to address endogeneity aspects of the prevalence of infections and the adoption of national campaigns. We find evidence that public campaigns significantly reduce the use of antimicrobials in the community by 1:3 to 5:6 defined daily doses per 1.000 inhabitants yearly. This roughly represents an impact between 6,5% and 28,3% on the mean level of antibiotic use in Europe between 1997 and 2007. The effect is robust across different measurement methods. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of policy interventions targeting different social groups such as general practitioners or patients.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo in its series Working Papers with number 1202.
Date of creation: 2012
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Antibiotic use; public policies; national campaigns; difference-in-difference;
Other versions of this item:
- M. Filippini & L. Ortiz & G. Masiero, 2013. "Assessing the impact of national antibiotic campaigns in Europe," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 587-599, August.
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
- C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
- C54 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Quantitative Policy Modeling
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-06-25 (All new papers)
- NEP-HME-2012-06-25 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-MAC-2012-06-25 (Macroeconomics)
- NEP-MON-2012-06-25 (Monetary Economics)
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- Blázquez-Fernández, Carla & González-Prieto, Noelia & Moreno-Mencía, Patricia, 2013. "Pharmaceutical Expenditure as a Determinant of Health Outcomes in EU Countries/El gasto farmacéutico como determinante de los resultados en salud en países de la UE," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 31, pages 379-396, Septiembr.
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