Disentangling spillover effects of antibiotic consumption: a spatial panel approach
AbstractLiterature on socioeconomic determinants of antibiotic consumption in the community is limited to few countries using cross-sectional data. This paper analyses regional variations in outpatient antibiotics in Italy using a balanced panel dataset covering the period 2000-2008. We specify an econometric model where antibiotic consumption depends upon demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population, the supply of health care services in the community, and antibiotic copayments. The model is estimated by means of Ordinary least squares techniques with fixed effects (FE). The implications of consumption externalities across geographical areas are investigated by means of spatial-lag and spatial-error models (SLFE and SEFE). We find significant and positive income elasticity and negative effects of copayments. Antibiotic use is also affected by the age structure of the population and the supply of community health care. Finally, we find evidence of spatial dependency in the use of antibiotics across regions. This suggests that regional policies (e.g. public campaigns) aimed at increasing efficiency in antibiotic consumption and controlling bacterial resistance may be influenced by policy makers in neighbouring regions. There will be scope for a strategic and coordinated view of regional policies towards the use of antibiotics.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by USI Università della Svizzera italiana in its series Quaderni della facoltà di Scienze economiche dell'Università di Lugano with number 1106.
Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.library.lu.usi.ch
Antibiotic consumption; Socioeconomic inequalities; Spatial dependency; Regional policies.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
- C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-08-22 (All new papers)
- NEP-GEO-2011-08-22 (Economic Geography)
- NEP-HEA-2011-08-22 (Health Economics)
- NEP-URE-2011-08-22 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vincenzo Atella & Karen Hassell & Ellen Schafheutle & Marjorie C. Weiss & Peter R. Noyce, 2003. "Cost to the Patient or Cost to the Healthcare System? Which one Matters the Most for GP Prescribing Decisions? A UK-Italy Comparison," CEIS Research Paper 1, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
- Fiorio, Carlo V. & Siciliani, Luigi, 2010. "Co-payments and the demand for pharmaceuticals: Evidence from Italy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 835-841, July.
- Federico Revelli, 2001. "Spatial patterns in local taxation: tax mimicking or error mimicking?," Applied Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 33(9), pages 1101-1107.
- Michael Baye & Robert Maness & Steven Wiggins, 1997. "Demand systems and the true subindex of the cost of living for pharmaceuticals," Applied Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 29(9), pages 1179-1190.
- Filippini, M. & Masiero, G. & Moschetti, K., 2009. "Regional consumption of antibiotics: A demand system approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1389-1397, November.
- Filippini, Massimo & Masiero, Giuliano & Moschetti, Karine, 2006. "Socioeconomic determinants of regional differences in outpatient antibiotic consumption: Evidence from Switzerland," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 77-92, August.
- Joan Costa-Font & Francesco Moscone, 2008. "The impact of decentralization and inter-territorial interactions on Spanish health expenditure," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 167-184, February.
- Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-94, September.
- Paul Contoyannis & Jeremiah Hurley & Paul Grootendorst & Sung-Hee Jeon & Robyn Tamblyn, 2005. "Estimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, Canada," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(9), pages 909-923.
- John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
- Di Matteo, Livio, 2005. "The macro determinants of health expenditure in the United States and Canada: assessing the impact of income, age distribution and time," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 23-42, January.
- Joan Costa-Font & Panos Kanavos & Joan Rovira, 2007. "Determinants of out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure and access to drugs in Catalonia," Applied Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 39(5), pages 541-551.
- Anne Bretteville-Jensen, 2006. "Drug Demand – Initiation, Continuation and Quitting," De Economist, Springer, vol. 154(4), pages 491-516, December.
- Niklas Rudholm, 2003. "Competition and substitutability in the Swedish pharmaceuticals market," Applied Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 35(14), pages 1609-1617.
- Filippini, Massimo & Masiero, Giuliano & Moschetti, Karine, 2009. "Small area variations and welfare loss in the use of outpatient antibiotics," Health Economics, Policy and Law, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(01), pages 55-77, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alessio Tutino).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.