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Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach

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  • Ordás Criado, C.
  • Grether, J.-M.

Abstract

Abstract This paper investigates the convergence hypothesis for per capita CO2 emissions with a panel of 166 world areas covering the period 1960-2002. The analysis is based on the evolution of the spatial distributions over time. Robust measures of dispersion, asymmetry, peakedness and two nonparametric distributional tests - shape equality and multimodality - are used to assess spatial time differences. A robust normal reference bandwidth is also applied to estimate Markov's transition laws and its subsequent ergodic (long-run) distributions. Our results point toward non-stationary, flattening and right-skewed spatial distributions before the oil price shocks of the 1970s and more stable and symmetric shapes between 1980 and 2000 at the world level and for many country groupings (similar income, geographic neighbors, institutional partners). In the latter period, group-specific convergence patterns emerge with the clearest single-peaked and compact density shapes being reached in the wealthy, well-integrated and European countries during the last years of the panel. No significant multimodality is formally detected in the world distribution over the whole period. The Markov analysis suggests more divergence and larger per capita emissions for the world in the long run, with a doubling in median emissions and stable pollution gaps during the first 50 years of the transition. A variety of steady state distributions are identified in the country subsets.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Resource and Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 33 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages: 637-665

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Handle: RePEc:eee:resene:v:33:y:2011:i:3:p:637-665

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505569

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Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions Air pollution Convergence Distribution dynamics Stochastic kernels Robustness;

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Cited by:
  1. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers XREAP2012-15, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Sep 2012.
  2. Ordás Criado, Carlos & Valente, Simone & Stengos, Thanasis, 2009. "Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: A nonparametric approach," MPRA Paper 17492, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Mazzanti, M. & Musolesi, A., 2013. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: assessing the effect of policy and energy time events for advanced countries," Working Papers 2013-11, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  4. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2012. "Breaking Environmental Kuznets Curves. Evaluating Energy and Policy Time Events Effects on CO2 Trends for Advanced Countries," Working Papers 201214, University of Ferrara, Department of Economics.
  5. Nicole A. MATHYS & Jaime de MELO, 2010. "Trade and Climate Change: The Challenges Ahead," Working Papers P14, FERDI.
  6. Burnett, J. Wesley, 2013. "Club Convergence and Clustering of U.S. Energy-Related CO2 Emissions," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149578, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  7. Mona Haddad & Ben Shepherd, 2011. "Managing Openness : Trade and Outward-oriented Growth After the Crisis," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2283, October.
  8. de Melo, Jaime & Mathys, Nicole Andréa, 2012. "Reconciling Trade and Climate Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 8760, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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