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Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in Pakistan: Cointegration and Granger causality

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Lean, Hooi Hooi
  • Shabbir, Muhammad Shahbaz

Abstract

The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study of Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness in Pakistan over the period of 1971–2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality approach are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists a long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates certain achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find a one-way causal relationship running from economic growth to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change of CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10% yearly.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

Volume (Year): 16 (2012)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
Pages: 2947-2953

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Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:16:y:2012:i:5:p:2947-2953

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Keywords: CO2 emissions; Energy consumption; Trade openness;

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Cited by:
  1. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sbia, Rashid & Hamdi, Helmi, 2013. "The Environmental cost of Skiing in the Desert? Evidence from Cointegration with unknown Structural breaks in UAE," MPRA Paper 48007, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 03 Jul 2013.
  2. Mohammed I Shuaibu & Mutiu A Oyinlola, 2013. "Do structural breaks matter in the growth-environment nexus in Nigeria?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2982-2994.
  3. Farhani, Sahbi & Shahbaz, Muhammad & AROURI, Mohamed El Hedi, 2013. "Panel analysis of CO2 emissions, GDP, energy consumption, trade openness and urbanization for MENA countries," MPRA Paper 49258, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Aug 2013.
  4. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Solarin, Sakiru Adebola & Mahmood, Haider & Arouri, Mohamed, 2013. "Does financial development reduce CO2 emissions in Malaysian economy? A time series analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 145-152.
  5. Farhani, Sahbi & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sbia, Rashid, 2013. "What is MENA Region Initially Needed: Grow Output or Mitigate CO2 Emissions?," MPRA Paper 48859, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Aug 2013.
  6. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Farhani, Sahbi & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2013. "Coal Consumption, Industrial Production and CO2 Emissions in China and India," MPRA Paper 50618, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Oct 2013.
  7. Muhammad, Javid & Ghulam Fatima, Sharif, 2013. "Energy Consumption, Financial development and CO2 emissions in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 48287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "The environmental Kuzents Curve and the role of coal consumption in India: cointegration and causality analysis in an open economy," MPRA Paper 37775, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Mar 2012.
  9. Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "Multivariate granger causality between CO2 Emissions, energy intensity, financial development and economic growth: evidence from Portugal," MPRA Paper 37774, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Mar 2012.
  10. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2013. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Role of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness," MPRA Paper 51672, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Kumar Tiwari, Aviral & Nasir, Muhammad, 2013. "The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on CO2 emissions in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1452-1459.
  12. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2013. "Does financial instability increase environmental degradation? Fresh evidence from Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 537-544.
  13. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ozturk, Ilhan & Afza, Talat & Ali, Amjad, 2013. "Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve in a Global Economy," MPRA Paper 46610, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 23 Apr 2013.
  14. Mohamed Amine Boutabba, 2013. "The impact of financial development, income, energy and trade on carbon emissions: Evidence from the Indian economy," Documents de recherche 13-05, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
  15. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Qazi Muhammad Adnan, Hye & Aviral Kumar, Tiwari, 2013. "Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, International Trade and CO2 Emissions, in Indonesia," MPRA Paper 43272, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Dec 2012.
  16. Alkhathlan, Khalid & Javid, Muhammad, 2013. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1525-1532.
  17. Faridul, Islam & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Bangladesh?," MPRA Paper 38490, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Apr 2012.
  18. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2013. "The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia," MPRA Paper 52127, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  19. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Naceur, Khraief & Gazi Salah, Uddin, 2012. "Environmental Kuznets Curve in an Open Economy: A Bounds Testing and Causality Analysis for Tunisia," MPRA Paper 42706, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Nov 2012.

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