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CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries

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  • Pao, Hsiao-Tien
  • Tsai, Chung-Ming
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    Abstract

    This paper examines dynamic causal relationships between pollutant emissions, energy consumption and output for a panel of BRIC countries over the period 1971-2005, except for Russia (1990-2005). In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions, while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with the threshold income of 5.393 (in logarithms). In the short term, changes in emissions are driven mostly by the error correction term and short term energy consumption shocks, as opposed to short term output shocks for each country. Short-term deviations from the long term equilibrium take from 0.770 years (Russia) to 5.848 years (Brazil) to correct. The panel causality results indicate there are energy consumption-emissions bidirectional strong causality and energy consumption-output bidirectional long-run causality, along with unidirectional both strong and short-run causalities from emissions and energy consumption, respectively, to output. Overall, in order to reduce emissions and not to adversely affect economic growth, increasing both energy supply investment and energy efficiency, and stepping up energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage of energy can be initiated for energy-dependent BRIC countries.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 12 (December)
    Pages: 7850-7860

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:12:p:7850-7860

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    Related research

    Keywords: Carbon dioxide emission Error correction model BRIC;

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    Cited by:
    1. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sbia, Rashid & Hamdi, Helmi, 2013. "The Environmental cost of Skiing in the Desert? Evidence from Cointegration with unknown Structural breaks in UAE," MPRA Paper 48007, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 03 Jul 2013.
    2. Al-mulali, Usama & Binti Che Sab, Che Normee, 2012. "The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic and financial development in 19 selected countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4365-4369.
    3. Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "Multivariate granger causality between CO2 Emissions, energy intensity, financial development and economic growth: evidence from Portugal," MPRA Paper 37774, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Mar 2012.
    4. Mohamed Arouri & Muhammad Shahbaz & Rattapon Onchang & Faridul Islam & Frédéric Teulon, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets Curve in Thailand: Cointegration and Causality Analysis," Working Papers 2014-204, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    5. Thomas Jobert & Fatih Karanfil & Anna Tykhonenko, 2012. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve Reconsidered from the Perspective of Heterogeneity: Insights for Climate Change and Energy Policy," GREDEG Working Papers 2012-15, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Économie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
    6. Cowan, Wendy N. & Chang, Tsangyao & Inglesi-Lotz, Roula & Gupta, Rangan, 2014. "The nexus of electricity consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in the BRICS countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 359-368.
    7. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Qazi Muhammad, Adnan Hye & Aviral Kumar, Tiwari, 2012. "Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, International Trade and CO2 Emissions in Indonesia," MPRA Paper 43294, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Dec 2012.
    8. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "The environmental Kuzents Curve and the role of coal consumption in India: cointegration and causality analysis in an open economy," MPRA Paper 37775, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Mar 2012.
    9. Saboori, Behnaz & Sulaiman, Jamalludin, 2013. "Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 892-905.
    10. Itkonen, Juha, 2011. "Causal misspecifications in econometric models," MPRA Paper 31397, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Ahdi Noomen Ajmi & Ghassen El Montasser & Duc Khuong Nguyen, 2014. "Carbon emissions - income relationships with structural breaks: the case of the Middle East and North African countries," Working Papers 2014-296, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Shabbir, Muhammad Shahbaz, 2012. "Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in Pakistan: Cointegration and Granger causality," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 2947-2953.
    13. Ozcan, Burcu, 2013. "The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1138-1147.
    14. Omri, Anis & Kahouli, Bassem, 2014. "Causal relationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 913-922.
    15. Hamdi, Helmi & Sbia, Rashid, 2013. "Dynamic relationships between oil revenues, government spending and economic growth in an oil-dependent economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 118-125.
    16. Al-mulali, Usama & Foon Tang, Chor, 2013. "Investigating the validity of pollution haven hypothesis in the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 813-819.
    17. Niu, Shuwen & Ding, Yongxia & Niu, Yunzhu & Li, Yixin & Luo, Guanghua, 2011. "Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2121-2131, April.
    18. OZKAN, Filiz & OZKAN, Omer, 2012. "An Analysis Of Co2 Emissions Of Turkish Industries And Energy Sector," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 12(2).

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