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Environmental Kuznets Curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan

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  • Muhammad, Shahbaz
  • Lean, Hooi Hooi
  • Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir

Abstract

The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study for Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness for Pakistan over the period of 1971-2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality test are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates a reasonable achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find one-way causal relationship running from income to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change in CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10 percent each year.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 34929.

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Date of creation: 10 Nov 2011
Date of revision: 22 Nov 2011
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:34929

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Keywords: CO2 emissions; energy consumption; trade openness;

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Cited by:
  1. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Tiwari, Aviral & Muhammad, Nasir, 2011. "The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environment performance in South Africa," MPRA Paper 32723, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Aug 2011.
  2. Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir & Muhammad, Zeshan & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2011. "Renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions nexus: a structural VAR approach in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34859, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Nov 2011.
  3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Zeshan, Muhammad & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar, 2011. "Analysis of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: A structural VAR approach in Romania," MPRA Paper 34066, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Oct 2011.
  4. Suleiman, Sa’ad & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "Price and Income Elasticities of Demand for Oil Products in African Member Countries of OPEC: A Cointegration Analysis," MPRA Paper 37390, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Feb 2012.
  5. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Mihai, Mutascu & Parvez, Azim, 2011. "Environmental Kuznets Curve in Romania and the Role of Energy Consumption," MPRA Paper 32254, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Jul 2011.
  6. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does financial instability increase environmental pollution in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31530, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Mar 2011.
  7. Muhammad, Shahbaz & V G R, Chandran & Pervaiz, Azeem, 2011. "Natural gas consumption and economic growth: cointegration, causality and forecast error variance decomposition tests for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35103, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Nov 2011.
  8. Muhammad Zeshan & Vaqar Ahmed, 2013. "Energy, environment and growth nexus in South Asia," Environment, Development and Sustainability, Springer, Springer, vol. 15(6), pages 1465-1475, December.

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