Income and emission: A panel data-based cointegration analysis
AbstractThis paper presents the results of an investigation of the causality issue of income-emission relationship based on time series econometric techniques of unit root test, co-integration and related error correction model for a panel data set. Here, the nature of causality between per capita CO2 emission (PCCO2) and per capita GDP (PCGDP) has been examined using a cross country panel data set covering 88 countries for the period 1960 - 90. Using the panel unit root test procedure of Im et al. (1997) (IPS), we have found that the hypothesis of unit root (i.e., non-stationarity) of the time series of PCGDP and PCCO2 can not be rejected for individual country groups. As both the variables are found to follow I(1) process, we next have performed the panel data co-integration test and finally, we have estimated the ECM (for these country groups for which significant income-emission cointegration was obtained) to explore the nature of dynamics implicit in the given panel data set. Our findings suggest that there is more or less a bi-directional causal relationship between income (PCGDP) and CO2 emission (PCCO2) for Africa, Central America, America as a whole, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Europe as a whole and the World as a whole. That means, the movement of the one variable directly affects the other variable through a feedback system. Thus, the policy makers should be cautious to make proper decision about the control of emission level.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.
Volume (Year): 57 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 (May)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon
Other versions of this item:
- Dinda, Soumyananda & Coondoo, Dipankor, 2001. "Income and Emission: A Panel Data based Cointegration Analysis," MPRA Paper 50591, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Mar 2003.
- C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
- O44 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
- O47 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
- Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
- Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
- Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters
- Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David I. Stern, 1998.
"A multivariate cointegration analysis of the role of energy in the U.S. macroeconomy,"
Working Papers in Ecological Economics
9803, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.
- Stern, David I., 2000. "A multivariate cointegration analysis of the role of energy in the US macroeconomy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 267-283, April.
- Glasure, Yong U. & Lee, Aie-Rie, 1998. "Cointegration, error-correction, and the relationship between GDP and energy: The case of South Korea and Singapore," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 17-25, March.
- Stern, David I., 1993. "Energy and economic growth in the USA : A multivariate approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 137-150, April.
- Baltagi, Badi H & Griffin, James M, 1995. "A Dynamic Demand Model for Liquor: The Case for Pooling," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(3), pages 545-54, August.
- Suzanne McCoskey & Chihwa Kao, 1998.
"A residual-based test of the null of cointegration in panel data,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 57-84.
- Chihwa Kao & Suzanne McCoskey, 1997. "A Residual-Based Test Of The Null Of Cointegration In Panel Data," Econometrics 9711002, EconWPA.
- McCoskey, Suzanne & Kao, Chihwa, 1999. " Testing the Stability of a Production Function with Urbanization as a Shift Factor," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 671-90, Special I.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Baltagi, Badi H. & Griffin, James M., 1997. "Pooled estimators vs. their heterogeneous counterparts in the context of dynamic demand for gasoline," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 303-327, April.
- Yang, Hao-Yen, 2000. "A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 309-317, June.
- Funk, Mark & Strauss, Jack, 2000. "The long-run relationship between productivity and capital," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 213-217, November.
- Quah, D., 1993.
"Exploiting Cross Section Variation for Unit Root Inference in Dynamic Data,"
549, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
- Quah, Danny, 1994. "Exploiting cross-section variation for unit root inference in dynamic data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(1-2), pages 9-19.
- Danny Quah, 1993. "Exploiting Cross Section Variation for Unit Root Inference in Dynamic Data," FMG Discussion Papers dp171, Financial Markets Group.
- Agras, Jean & Chapman, Duane, 1999. "A dynamic approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 267-277, February.
- Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995.
"Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Thomas M. Selden, 1992. "Stoking the Fires? Co2 Emissions and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 4248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hettige, Hemamala & Lucas, Robert E B & Wheeler, David, 1992. "The Toxic Intensity of Industrial Production: Global Patterns, Trends, and Trade Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 478-81, May.
- Chihwa Kao & Min-Hsien Chiang & Bangtian Chen, 1999.
"International R&D Spillovers: An Application of Estimation and Inference in Panel Cointegration,"
Center for Policy Research Working Papers
4, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
- Kao, Chihwa & Chiang, Min-Hsien & Chen, Bangtian, 1999. " International R&D Spillovers: An Application of Estimation and Inference in Panel Cointegration," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 691-709, Special I.
- Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003.
"Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
- Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Tom Doan, . "IPSHIN: RATS procedure to implement Im, Pesaran and Shin panel unit root test," Statistical Software Components RTS00098, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Coondoo, Dipankor & Dinda, Soumyananda, 2002. "Causality between income and emission: a country group-specific econometric analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 351-367, March.
- Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2000.
"The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 615-625, December.
- Asafu-Adjaye, John, 1999. "The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: Time series evidence from Asian developing countries," 1999 Conference (43th), January 20-22, 1999, Christchurch, New Zealand 123754, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
- Cheng, Benjamin S. & Lai, Tin Wei, 1997. "An investigation of co-integration and causality between energy consumption and economic activity in Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 435-444, October.
- Benjamin S. Cheng, 1999. "Causality Between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in India: An Application of Cointegration and Error-Correction Modeling," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 34(1), pages 39-49, January.
- Kao, Chihwa, 1999. "Spurious regression and residual-based tests for cointegration in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 1-44, May.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.