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Monopsonistic discrimination, worker turnover, and the gender wage gap

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  • Barth, Erling
  • Dale-Olsen, Harald

Abstract

Motivated by models of worker flows, we argue in this paper that monopsonistic discrimination may be a substantial factor behind the overall gender wage gap. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway, we estimate establishment-specific wage premiums separately for men and women, conditioning on fixed individual effects. Regressions of worker turnover on the wage premium identify less wage elastic labour supply facing each establishment of women than that of men. Workforce gender composition is strongly related to employers' wage policies. The results suggest that 70-90% of the gender wage gap for low-educated workers may be attributed to differences in labour market frictions between men and women, while the similar figures for high-educated workers ranges from 20 to 70%.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Labour Economics.

Volume (Year): 16 (2009)
Issue (Month): 5 (October)
Pages: 589-597

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Handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:16:y:2009:i:5:p:589-597

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/labeco

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Keywords: Gender wage gap Monopsony;

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References

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  1. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 1995. "Job Flows, Worker Flows and Churning," CEPR Discussion Papers 1125, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Audra J. Bowlus & Zvi Eckstein, 2002. "Discrimination and Skill Differences in an Equilibrium Search Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(4), pages 1309-1345, November.
  3. Burdett, Kenneth & Vishwanath, Tara, 1988. "Balanced Matching and Labor Market Equilibrium," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(5), pages 1048-65, October.
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  7. Bhaskar, V & To, Ted, 1999. "Minimum Wages for Ronald McDonald Monopsonies: A Theory of Monopsonistic Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(455), pages 190-203, April.
  8. Meyersson Milgrom, Eva M & Petersen, Trond & Snartland, Vemund, 2001. " Equal Pay for Equal Work? Evidence from Sweden and a Comparison with Norway and the U.S," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 103(4), pages 559-83, December.
  9. Kristen Keith & Abagail McWilliams, 1999. "The Returns to mobility and job search by gender," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(3), pages 460-477, April.
  10. Black, Dan A, 1995. "Discrimination in an Equilibrium Search Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(2), pages 309-33, April.
  11. Alan Manning & Ted To, 2002. "Oligopsony and Monopsonistic Competition in Labor Markets," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(2), pages 155-174, Spring.
  12. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Pissarides, Christopher A. & Wadsworth, Jonathan, 1994. "On-the-job search: Some empirical evidence from Britain," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 385-401, February.
  14. Manning, Alan, 1996. "The Equal Pay Act as an Experiment to Test Theories of the Labour Market," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages 191-212, May.
  15. Francine D. Blau & Larry M. Kahn, 1981. "Race and sex differences in quits by young workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 34(4), pages 563-577, July.
  16. William M. Boal & Michael R. Ransom, 1997. "Monopsony in the Labor Market," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 86-112, March.
  17. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Jr & John T. Warren, 2003. "Negative returns to seniority: New evidence in academic markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(2), pages 306-323, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Erling Barth & Bernt Bratsberg & Oddbjørn Raaum, 2011. "Immigrant Wage Profiles Within and Between Establishments," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2011019, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  2. Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael & Carrera, Miguel & Antón, José-Ignacio, 2009. "From guests to hosts: a first whole picture of immigrant-native wage differentials in Spain," MPRA Paper 13928, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Hassink, Wolter & Russo, Giovanni, 2010. "The Glass Door: The Gender Composition of Newly-Hired Workers Across Hierarchical Job Levels," IZA Discussion Papers 4858, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Hirsch, Boris & Schnabel, Claus, 2010. "Women Move Differently: Job Separations and Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 5154, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Alison L. Booth & Pamela Katic, 2011. "Estimating the Wage Elasticity of Labour Supply to a Firm: What Evidence is there for Monopsony?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 87(278), pages 359-369, 09.
  6. Alan Manning, 2010. "Imperfect competition in the labour market," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28729, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  7. Panagiotis Nanos & Christian Schluter, 2013. "The Composition of Wage Differentials between Migrants and Natives," Papers 1306.1781, arXiv.org, revised Oct 2013.
  8. Alan Manning, 2010. "Imperfect Competition in the Labour Market," CEP Discussion Papers dp0981, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  9. José-Ignacio Antón & Rafael Mu�oz de Bustillo, 2009. "Immigration And Discrimination In A Former Emigrant Country: The Case Of Spain," Working Papers 2009.2, International Network for Economic Research - INFER.
  10. Hirsch, Boris & Jahn, Elke J. & Schnabel, Claus, 2013. "The cyclical behaviour of employers' monopsony power and workers' wages," Discussion Papers 89, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  11. Antón, José-Ignacio & Carrera, Miguel & Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael, 2009. "How are you doing in your grandpa’s country? Labour market performance of Latin American immigrants in Spain," MPRA Paper 15051, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. José-Ignacio Antón & Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo & Miguel Carrera, 2010. "From guests to hosts: immigrant-native wage differentials in Spain," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(6), pages 645-659, September.
  13. Julie L. Hotchkiss & Myriam Quispe-Agnoli, 2009. "Employer monopsony power in the labor market for undocumented workers," Working Paper 2009-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  14. Kahn, Lawrence M., 2012. "Temporary jobs and job search effort in Europe," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 113-128.

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