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On the convergence of reinforcement learning

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  • Beggs, A.W.

Abstract

This paper examines the convergence of payoffs and strategies in Erev and Roth`s model of reinforcement learning. When all players use this rule it eliminates iteratively dominated strategies and in two-person constant-sum games average payoffs converge to the value of the game. Strategies converge in constant-sum games with unique equilibria if they are pure or in 2 × 2 games also if they are mixed. The long-run behaviour of the learning rule is governed by equations related to Maynard Smith`s version of the replicator dynamic. Properties of the learning rule against general opponents are also studied. In particular it is shown that it guarantees that the lim sup of a player`s average payoffs is at least his minmax payoff.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Theory.

Volume (Year): 122 (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 (May)
Pages: 1-36

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jetheo:v:122:y:2005:i:1:p:1-36

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622869

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  1. Laslier, Jean-Francois & Topol, Richard & Walliser, Bernard, 2001. "A Behavioral Learning Process in Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 340-366, November.
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  8. Gale, John & Binmore, Kenneth G. & Samuelson, Larry, 1995. "Learning to be imperfect: The ultimatum game," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 56-90.
  9. Ed Hopkins, 2001. "Two Competing Models of How People Learn in Games," NajEcon Working Paper Reviews 625018000000000226, www.najecon.org.
  10. Rustichini, Aldo, 1999. "Optimal Properties of Stimulus--Response Learning Models," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 29(1-2), pages 244-273, October.
  11. Martin Posch, 1997. "Cycling in a stochastic learning algorithm for normal form games," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 193-207.
  12. Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-81, September.
  13. Kuan, Chung-Ming & White, Halbert, 1994. "Adaptive Learning with Nonlinear Dynamics Driven by Dependent Processes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1087-1114, September.
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