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Die Arbeitserlaubnis als Instrument der Arbeitsmarktpolitik zur Steuerung internationaler Zuwanderung auf den Arbeitsmarkt

  • Velling, Johannes
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    Die Arbeitserlaubnis ist das wichtigste Instrument zur Kontrolle des Arbeitsmarktzugangs von ausländischen Immigranten. Die Erteilung einer allgemeinen Arbeitserlaubnis wird - unter Beachtung des Anwerbestopps - normalerweise nur dann vorgenommen, wenn kein Deutscher oder gleichberechtigter Ausländer für die zu besetzende Arbeitsstelle zur Verfügung steht (Inländerprimat). Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, inwieweit die internationale Zuwanderung Auswirkungen auf die Arbeitslosigkeit einheimischer Arbeitnehmer besitzt, und ob Inländerprimat und Anwerbestopp in dieser Hinsicht die ihnen zugedachte Schutzfunktion erfüllen. Die empirische Analyse bezieht sich mit den Jahren 1989 bis 1993 auf eine Phase enorm hoher Zuwanderung und wird auf Basis regionaler Variation (westdeutsche Arbeitsamtbezirke) ausgeführt. Dabei wird explizit räumliche Interaktion zwischen benachbarten Regionen berücksichtigt. Es zeigt sich, daß die Zuwanderung von arbeitserlaubnispflichtigen Ausländern im wesentlichen neutral, mitunter sogar positiv auf den Arbeitsmarkt. gewirkt hat, während sonst die Zuwanderung negative Effekte besessen hat. Dabei gingen von der Zuwanderung deutscher Arbeitnehmer die stärksten absoluten Effekte, von der Zuwanderung von EU-Bürgern die stärksten relativen Effekte aus. ; The work permit is the most important instrument to control the labour market access of foreign immigrants in Germany. The general work permit is only be granted if no German or privileged foreigner is available for the job concerned (native privilege). In this paper we analyse the effects of international migration on local unemployment and the role of native privilege and recruitment stop in this perspective. The empirical analysis conducted in the years 1989 to 1993 reflects a period of extraordinary high immigration. It is based on local labour markets (West German Labour Market Districts) and considers explicitly the spatial interaction between contiguous regions. We find a neutral and in somes cases even favourable effect of the labour market entrance of immigrants with work permits on local unemployment. On the contrary, almost all other kind of immigration led to increased unemployment. Thereof, the immigration of German workers had the strongest effects in absolute values, the immigration of EU-citizens in relative values.

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    Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 95-16.

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    Date of creation: 1995
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:9516
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    1. Rachel M. Friedberg & Jennifer Hunt, 1995. "The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 23-44, Spring.
    2. Bauer, Thomas & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 1995. "Integrating the East: The Labour Market Effects of Immigration," CEPR Discussion Papers 1235, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Schmidt, Christoph M. & Stilz, Anette & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 1994. "Mass migration, unions, and government intervention," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 185-201, October.
    4. Zimmermann, Klaus F, 1993. "Native Wage Impacts of Foreign Labour: A Random Effects Panel Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 851, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Franz, Wolfgang & Oser, Ursula & Winker, Peter, 1993. "A macroeconometric disequilibrium analysis of current and future migration from Eastern Europe into West Germany," Discussion Papers 6, University of Konstanz, Center for International Labor Economics (CILE).
    6. Pischke, J.S. & Velling, J., 1994. "Wages and Employment Effects of Immigration to Germany: An Analysis Based on Local Labor Markets," Working papers 94-08, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
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