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The rat race of capital structure research for REITs and REOCs: Two spotlights on leverage

  • Hohenstatt, Ralf
  • Steininger, Bertram

This paper presents a dynamic multi-equation model based on a balance sheet identity, where technical aspects of capital structure are highlighted through separately observing debt and equity and their relationship to investment. Additionally, leverage dynamics are interpreted in their role for liquidity management. Interactions of leverage with lines of credit (LOC) and cash are considered in the light of financial flexibility. The major findings obtained by observing US REITs and REOCs from 1995 to 2010 are as follows. In accordance with the existing literature, cash and LOC reveal a substitute relationship. However, the calculus of financial flexibility and our findings suggest that leverage positively drives cash, which is consistent with Gamba and Triantis (2008), and also with the accepted perspective of debt minus cash being net debt (Spotlight A). Consequently, the very robust results indicate that leverage eliminates a significant amount of information. Further mechanical relationships, especially for market leverage, are suggested (Spotlight B).

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File URL: https://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/54963/1/684259141.pdf
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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 11-077.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:11077
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  1. Flannery, Mark J. & Rangan, Kasturi P., 2006. "Partial adjustment toward target capital structures," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 469-506, March.
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  9. Zhilan Feng & Chinmoy Ghosh & C. Sirmans, 2007. "On the Capital Structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 81-105, January.
  10. Campello, Murillo & Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2010. "The real effects of financial constraints: Evidence from a financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 470-487, September.
  11. Hovakimian, Armen & Hovakimian, Gayane & Tehranian, Hassan, 2004. "Determinants of target capital structure: The case of dual debt and equity issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(3), pages 517-540, March.
  12. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello, 2007. "Financial Constraints, Asset Tangibility, and Corporate Investment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(5), pages 1429-1460, 2007 12.
  13. Timothy J. Riddiough & Zhonghua Wu, 2009. "Financial Constraints, Liquidity Management and Investment," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 37(3), pages 447-481.
  14. David T. Brown & Timothy J. Riddiough, 2003. "Financing Choice and Liability Structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(3), pages 313-346, 09.
  15. Andrea Gamba & Alexander J. Triantis, 2007. "The Value of Financial Flexibility," Working Papers wpn07-02, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
  16. Ozkan, Aydin & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2004. "Corporate cash holdings: An empirical investigation of UK companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2103-2134, September.
  17. Amir Sufi, 2009. "Bank Lines of Credit in Corporate Finance: An Empirical Analysis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 1057-1088, March.
  18. William G. Hardin III & Zhonghua Wu, 2010. "Banking Relationships and REIT Capital Structure," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 38(2), pages 257-284.
  19. Erasmo Giambona & John P. Harding & C.F. Sirmans, 2008. "Explaining the Variation in REIT Capital Structure: The Role of Asset Liquidation Value," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 36(1), pages 111-137, 03.
  20. Barclay, Michael J. & Marx, Leslie M. & Smith, Clifford Jr., 2003. "The joint determination of leverage and maturity," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 149-167, March.
  21. Vladimir A. Gatchev & Todd Pulvino & Vefa Tarhan, 2010. "The Interdependent and Intertemporal Nature of Financial Decisions: An Application to Cash Flow Sensitivities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(2), pages 725-763, 04.
  22. Lins, Karl V. & Servaes, Henri & Tufano, Peter, 2010. "What drives corporate liquidity? An international survey of cash holdings and lines of credit," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 160-176, October.
  23. Mine Ertugrul & Erasmo Giambona, 2011. "Property Segment and REIT Capital Structure," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 505-526, November.
  24. William Hardin & Michael Highfield & Matthew Hill & G. Kelly, 2009. "The Determinants of REIT Cash Holdings," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 39-57, July.
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  26. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello, 2006. "Financial Constraints, Asset Tangibility, and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 12087, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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