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Liquidity Mergers

Author

Listed:
  • Heitor Almeida
  • Murillo Campello
  • Dirk Hackbarth

Abstract

We study the interplay between corporate liquidity and asset reallocation opportunities. Our model shows that financially distressed firms are acquired by liquid firms in their industries even when there are no operational synergies associated with the merger. We call these transactions "liquidity mergers," since their main purpose is to reallocate liquidity to firms that might be otherwise inefficiently terminated. We show that liquidity mergers are more likely to occur when industry-level asset specificity is high (i.e., industry-specific rents are high) and firm-level asset specificity is low (industry counterparts can efficiently operate distressed firms' assets). We also provide a detailed analysis of firms' liquidity policies as a function of real asset reallocation, examining the trade-offs between cash and lines of credit. The model makes a number of predictions that have not been examined in the literature. Using a large sample of mergers, we verify the model's prediction that liquidity-driven acquisitions are more likely to occur in industries in which assets are industry-specific, but transferable across industry rival firms. We also verify the prediction that firms are more likely to use credit lines (relative to cash) when they operate in industries in which liquidity mergers are more frequent.

Suggested Citation

  • Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Dirk Hackbarth, 2011. "Liquidity Mergers," NBER Working Papers 16724, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16724
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Rahul Mukherjee & Linda L. Tesar & Ron Alquist, 2014. "Liquidity-Driven FDI," IHEID Working Papers 17-2014, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised 11 Dec 2014.
    2. Toni Beutler & Mathieu Grobéty, 2011. "The Collateral Channel under Imperfect Debt Enforcement," Working Papers 11.11, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
    3. Alquist, Ron & Mukherjee, Rahul & Tesar, Linda, 2016. "Fire-sale FDI or business as usual?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 93-113.
    4. Alhenawi, Yasser & Krishnaswami, Sudha, 2015. "Long-term impact of merger synergies on performance and value," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 93-118.
    5. Ying Xu & Hai Anh La, 2017. "Spillovers of the United States’ Unconventional Monetary Policy to Emerging Asia: The Bank Lending Channel," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(12), pages 2744-2769, December.
    6. Vittoria Cerasi & Alessandro Fedele & Raffaele Miniaci, 2013. "Product market competition and collateralized debt," Working Papers 238, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2013.
    7. Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2011. "Fire Sales in Finance and Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 29-48, Winter.
    8. Chang, Xin & Shekhar, Chander & Tam, Lewis H.K. & Yao, Jiaquan, 2016. "The information role of advisors in mergers and acquisitions: Evidence from acquirers hiring targets’ ex-advisors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 247-264.
    9. Gregor Matvos & Amit Seru, 2014. "Resource Allocation within Firms and Financial Market Dislocation: Evidence from Diversified Conglomerates," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(4), pages 1143-1189.
    10. Quoc-Anh Do & Yen-Teik Lee & Bang Dang Nguyen, 2016. "Directors as Connectors: The Impact of the External Networks of Directors on Firms," Sciences Po publications 52, Sciences Po.
    11. repec:eee:corfin:v:47:y:2017:i:c:p:174-190 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Igor Cunha & Michael S. Weisbach, 2014. "Corporate Liquidity Management: A Conceptual Framework and Survey," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 135-162, December.
    13. Filippo Ippolito & Ander Pérez Orive, 2012. "Credit Lines: The Other Side of Corporate Liquidity," Working Papers 618, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    14. repec:eee:jfinec:v:125:y:2017:i:3:p:475-490 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Rahul Mukherjee & Christian Proebsting, 2015. "Survival of the Fittest: Corporate Control and the Cleansing Effect of Financial Crises," IHEID Working Papers 20-2015, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised 01 Oct 2015.
    16. Christopher L. House & Linda L. Tesar, 2015. "Greek Budget Realities: No Easy Options," Working Papers 652, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    17. Jaffe, Jeffrey & Jindra, Jan & Pedersen, David & Voetmann, Torben, 2015. "Returns to acquirers of public and subsidiary targets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 246-270.
    18. Larrain, Borja & Tapia, Matías & Urzúa I., Francisco, 2017. "Investor protection and corporate control," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 174-190.
    19. Khatami, Seyed Hossein & Marchica, Maria-Teresa & Mura, Roberto, 2015. "Corporate acquisitions and financial constraints," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 107-121.
    20. Meier, Jean-Marie A. & Servaes, Henri, 2014. "Distressed Acquisitions," CEPR Discussion Papers 10093, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    21. Hong Zhu & Qi Zhu, 2016. "Mergers and acquisitions by Chinese firms: A review and comparison with other mergers and acquisitions research in the leading journals," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 1107-1149, December.
    22. repec:kap:sbusec:v:49:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9838-x is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Choi, Jaewon & Hackbarth, Dirk & Zechner, Josef, 2013. "Granularity of corporate debt," CFS Working Paper Series 2013/26, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    24. Araujo, Aloisio P. & Ferreira, Rafael V.X. & Funchal, Bruno, 2012. "The Brazilian bankruptcy law experience," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 994-1004.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G33 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Bankruptcy; Liquidation
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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