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Empirische Studien zum Capability Ansatz auf der Grundlage von Befragungen: Ein Überblick

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  • Leßmann, Ortrud

Abstract

Obwohl die Frage, ob der Capability Ansatz überhaupt operationalisierbar ist, von Beginn an und bis heute diskutiert wird, gibt es inzwischen eine Fülle von empirischen Studien auf der Grundlage des Capability Ansatzes. Die meisten basieren auf Daten aus Befragungen (im Unterschied zu bspw. anthropometrischen Daten und solchen aus der volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnung). Zwei Eigenschaften des Capability Ansatzes stellen bei der Operationalisierung eine besondere Herausforderung dar: Seine Multidimensionalität und die besondere Bedeutung, die er der Handlungsfreiheit des Menschen beimisst. Schon die Auswahl von Dimensionen, die für eine Studie relevant sind, nötigt dem Forscher eine Vielzahl von Entscheidungen ab und ist nicht einfach zu lösen. Um darüber hinaus den Handlungsspielraum eines Menschen in Form der Menge an Verwirklichungschancen (capability set) zu erfassen, muss der Forscher hypothetische Überlegungen einbeziehen. Es haben sich zwei Strategien herausgebildet, dies zu tun: Die erste Strategie setzt auf die Verwendung bestimmter Analyseverfahren bei der Auswertung von Sekundärdaten (also von Daten, die nicht zum Zweck einer Capability-Analyse erhoben wurden). Die zweite Strategie trachtet danach, durch geeignete Fragen den Möglichkeitsaspekt zu berücksichtigen, und zielt daher auf die Erhebung von Primärdaten unter Einbeziehung solcher Fragen. Der Aufsatz gibt einen Überblick sowohl zu den erwähnten Hauptproblemen bei der Operationalisierung als auch zu den vorhandenen empirischen Studien. Von diesen werden zunächst die zahlreichen Sekundärstudien mit ihrer Fülle von unterschiedlichen Methoden und Forschungsfragen vorgestellt und in einem weiteren Abschnitt die beiden wichtigsten Projekte zur Erhebung von Primärdaten sowie deren Nutzung in einem kleinen Projekt der Autorin.

Suggested Citation

  • Leßmann, Ortrud, 2011. "Empirische Studien zum Capability Ansatz auf der Grundlage von Befragungen: Ein Überblick," UFZ Discussion Papers 4/2011, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ufzdps:42011
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