IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Structure and Evolution of Intersectoral Technological Complementarity in R&D in Germany from 1990 to 2011


  • Brökel, Tom
  • Brachert, Matthias


Technological complementarity is argued to be a crucial element for effective Research and Development (R&D) collaboration. The real structure is, however, still largely unknown. Based on the argument that organizations' knowledge resources must fit for enabling collective learning and innovation, we use the co-occurrence of firms in collaborative R&D projects in Germany to assess inter-sectoral technological complementarity between 129 sectors. The results are mapped as complementarity space for the Germany economy. The space and its dynamics from 1990 to 2011 are analyzed by means of social network analysis. The results illustrate sectors being complements both from a dyadic and portfolio/network perspective. This latter is important, as complementarities may only become fully effective when integrated in a complete set of different knowledge resources from multiple sectors. The dynamic perspective moreover reveals the shifting demand for knowledge resources among sectors at different time periods.

Suggested Citation

  • Brökel, Tom & Brachert, Matthias, 2014. "The Structure and Evolution of Intersectoral Technological Complementarity in R&D in Germany from 1990 to 2011," IWH Discussion Papers 13/2014, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:iwhdps:iwh-13-14

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joel A. C. Baum & Robin Cowan & Nicolas Jonard, 2010. "Network-Independent Partner Selection and the Evolution of Innovation Networks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(11), pages 2094-2110, November.
    2. David J. TEECE, 2008. "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: The Transfer And Licensing Of Know-How And Intellectual Property Understanding the Multinational Enterprise in the Modern World, chapter 5, pages 67-87, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Tarun Khanna, 1998. "The Scope of Alliances," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 9(3), pages 340-355, June.
    4. Michael Hitt & M. Tina Dacin & Edward Levitas & Jean-Luc Arregle & Anca Borza, 2000. "Partner Selection in Emerging and Developed Market Contexts : Resource-Based and Organizational Learning Perspectives," Post-Print hal-02276706, HAL.
    5. onder Nomaler & Bart Verspagen, 2008. "Knowledge Flows, Patent Citations and the Impact of Science on Technology," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(4), pages 339-366.
    6. Gautam Ahuja, 2000. "The duality of collaboration: inducements and opportunities in the formation of interfirm linkages," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 317-343, March.
    7. Schmiedeberg, Claudia, 2008. "Complementarities of innovation activities: An empirical analysis of the German manufacturing sector," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1492-1503, October.
    8. Ron Boschma & Simona Iammarino, 2009. "Related Variety, Trade Linkages, and Regional Growth in Italy," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(3), pages 289-311, July.
    9. Norihisa Sakurai & George Papaconstantinou & Evangelos Ioannidis, 1997. "Impact of R&D and Technology Diffusion on Productivity Growth: Empirical Evidence for 10 OECD Countries," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 81-109.
    10. Castellacci, Fulvio, 2008. "Technological paradigms, regimes and trajectories: Manufacturing and service industries in a new taxonomy of sectoral patterns of innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6-7), pages 978-994, July.
    11. Carolina Castaldi & Koen Frenken & Bart Los, 2015. "Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of US State-Level Patenting," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(5), pages 767-781, May.
    12. Hagedoorn, John, 2002. "Inter-firm R&D partnerships: an overview of major trends and patterns since 1960," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 477-492, May.
    13. Ennen, Edgar & Richter, Ansgar, 2009. "The Whole Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts - Or Is It? A Review of the Empirical Literature on Complementarities in Organizations," MPRA Paper 15666, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. van Eck, N.J.P. & Waltman, L., 2009. "How to Normalize Co-Occurrence Data? An Analysis of Some Well-Known Similarity Measures," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2009-001-LIS, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    15. Mowery, David C. & Oxley, Joanne E. & Silverman, Brian S., 1998. "Technological overlap and interfirm cooperation: implications for the resource-based view of the firm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 507-523, September.
    16. Marianna Makri & Michael A. Hitt & Peter J. Lane, 2010. "Complementary technologies, knowledge relatedness, and invention outcomes in high technology mergers and acquisitions," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(6), pages 602-628, June.
    17. Ulrich Wassmer & Pierre Dussauge, 2012. "Network resource stocks and flows : How do alliance portfolios affect the value of new alliance formations?," Post-Print hal-02313044, HAL.
    18. Hüseyin Tanriverdi & N. Venkatraman, 2005. "Knowledge relatedness and the performance of multibusiness firms," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(2), pages 97-119, February.
    19. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2002. "R&D Cooperation and Spillovers: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1169-1184, September.
    20. Gautam Ahuja & Curba Morris Lampert, 2001. "Entrepreneurship in the large corporation: a longitudinal study of how established firms create breakthrough inventions," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(6‐7), pages 521-543, June.
    21. Giulio Bottazzi & Davide Pirino, 2010. "Measuring Industry Relatedness and Corporate Coherence," LEM Papers Series 2010/10, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    22. Tom Broekel & Holger Graf, 2012. "Public research intensity and the structure of German R&D networks: a comparison of 10 technologies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 345-372, April.
    23. Gautam Ahuja & Riitta Katila, 2001. "Technological acquisitions and the innovation performance of acquiring firms: a longitudinal study," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 197-220, March.
    24. Michael Hitt & M. Tina Dacin & Edward Levitas & Jean-Luc Arregle & Anca Borza, 2000. "Partner Selection in Emerging and Developed Market Contexts : Resource-Based and Organizational Learning Perspectives," Post-Print hal-02312691, HAL.
    25. Stefano Brusoni & Orietta Marsili & Ammon Salter, 2005. "The role of codified sources of knowledge in innovation: Empirical evidence from Dutch manufacturing," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 211-231, January.
    26. John Hagedoorn & Jos Schakenraad, 1994. "The effect of strategic technology alliances on company performance," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(4), pages 291-309, May.
    27. Peter J. Lane & Michael Lubatkin, 1998. "Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning," Post-Print hal-02311860, HAL.
    28. Nooteboom, Bart & Van Haverbeke, Wim & Duysters, Geert & Gilsing, Victor & van den Oord, Ad, 2007. "Optimal cognitive distance and absorptive capacity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1016-1034, September.
    29. Ulrich Wassmer & Pierre Dussauge, 2012. "Network resource stocks and flows: how do alliance portfolios affect the value of new alliance formations?," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(7), pages 871-883, July.
    30. Toby E. Stuart, 2000. "Interorganizational alliances and the performance of firms: a study of growth and innovation rates in a high‐technology industry," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(8), pages 791-811, August.
    31. Anoop Madhok & Stephen B. Tallman, 1998. "Resources, Transactions and Rents: Managing Value Through Interfirm Collaborative Relationships," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 9(3), pages 326-339, June.
    32. David J. Bryce & Sidney G. Winter, 2009. "A General Interindustry Relatedness Index," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(9), pages 1570-1585, September.
    33. Lee Fleming, 2001. "Recombinant Uncertainty in Technological Search," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(1), pages 117-132, January.
    34. Reshma H. Shah & Vanitha Swaminathan, 2008. "Factors influencing partner selection in strategic alliances: the moderating role of alliance context," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(5), pages 471-494, May.
    35. Edward J. Zajac & Cyrus P. Olsen, 1993. "From Transaction Cost To Transactional Value Analysis: Implications For The Study Of Interorganizational Strategies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1), pages 131-145, January.
    36. Lihua Wang & Edward J. Zajac, 2007. "Alliance or acquisition? a dyadic perspective on interfirm resource combinations," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(13), pages 1291-1317, December.
    37. Hagedoorn, John & Wang, Ning, 2012. "Is there complementarity or substitutability between internal and external R&D strategies?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 1072-1083.
    38. Rikard Larsson & Sydney Finkelstein, 1999. "Integrating Strategic, Organizational, and Human Resource Perspectives on Mergers and Acquisitions: A Case Survey of Synergy Realization," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(1), pages 1-26, February.
    39. Kathleen M. Eisenhardt & Claudia Bird Schoonhoven, 1996. "Resource-based View of Strategic Alliance Formation: Strategic and Social Effects in Entrepreneurial Firms," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 7(2), pages 136-150, April.
    40. Pavitt, Keith, 1984. "Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 343-373, December.
    41. Ulrich Wassmer & Pierre Dussauge, 2012. "Network resource stocks and flows: how do alliance portfolios affect the value of new alliance formations?," Post-Print hal-00696858, HAL.
    42. Zhiang (John) Lin & Haibin Yang & Bindu Arya, 2009. "Alliance partners and firm performance: resource complementarity and status association," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(9), pages 921-940, September.
    43. David J. Teece & Richard Rumelt & Giovanni Dosi & Sidney Winter, 2000. "Understanding Corporate Coherence: Theory and Evidence," Chapters, in: Innovation, Organization and Economic Dynamics, chapter 9, pages 264-293, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    44. Frank Neffke & Martin Svensson Henning, 2009. "Skill-relatedness and firm diversification," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2009-06, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography, revised Oct 2010.
    45. Pierre Dussauge & Ulrich Wassmer, 2011. "Value Creation in Alliance Portfolios: The Benefits and Costs of Network Resource Interdependencies," Post-Print hal-00609489, HAL.
    46. Jeffrey H. Dyer & Harbir Singh & Prashant Kale, 2008. "Splitting the pie: rent distribution in alliances and networks," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2-3), pages 137-148.
    47. Pablo D'Este & Frederick Guy & Simona Iammarino, 2013. "Shaping the formation of university--industry research collaborations: what type of proximity does really matter?," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(4), pages 537-558, July.
    48. Franco Malerba & Maria Mancusi & Fabio Montobbio, 2013. "Innovation, international R&D spillovers and the sectoral heterogeneity of knowledge flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(4), pages 697-722, December.
    49. Miotti, Luis & Sachwald, Frederique, 2003. "Co-operative R&D: why and with whom?: An integrated framework of analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1481-1499, September.
    50. Breschi, Stefano & Lissoni, Francesco & Malerba, Franco, 2003. "Knowledge-relatedness in firm technological diversification," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 69-87, January.
    51. Koen Frenken & Frank Van Oort & Thijs Verburg, 2007. "Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Economic Growth," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 685-697.
    52. Nooteboom, Bart, 1999. "Innovation, Learning and Industrial Organisation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Cambridge Political Economy Society, vol. 23(2), pages 127-150, March.
    53. Ulrich Wassmer & Pierre Dussauge, 2011. "Value creation in alliance portfolios : The benefits and costs of network resource interdependencies," Post-Print hal-02313045, HAL.
    54. Nees Jan van Eck & Ludo Waltman, 2009. "How to normalize cooccurrence data? An analysis of some well‐known similarity measures," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Association for Information Science & Technology, vol. 60(8), pages 1635-1651, August.
    55. Chesbrough, Henry, 2003. "The governance and performance of Xerox's technology spin-off companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 403-421, March.
    56. Seungwha (Andy) Chung & Harbir Singh & Kyungmook Lee, 2000. "Complementarity, status similarity and social capital as drivers of alliance formation," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, January.
    57. Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1990. "Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 361-379, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Matthijs J. Janssen, 2015. "Cross-specialization: A New Perspective on Industry Policy," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1519, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jun 2015.
    2. Lucena-Piquero, D. & Vicente, Jérôme, 2019. "The visible hand of cluster policy makers: An analysis of Aerospace Valley (2006-2015) using a place-based network methodology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 830-842.
    3. Margherita Russo & Annalisa Caloffi & Ana Colovic & Pasquale Pavone & Saverio Romeo & Federica Rossi, 2021. "Mapping the distribution of Internet of Things competences across European regions," Working Papers 57, Birkbeck Centre for Innovation Management Research, revised Dec 2021.
    4. Jing Xiao & Ron Boschma & Martin Andersson, 2018. "Industrial Diversification in Europe: The Differentiated Role of Relatedness," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 94(5), pages 514-549, October.
    5. Tsouri, Maria & Hansen, Teis & Hanson, Jens & Steen, Markus, 2022. "Knowledge recombination for emerging technological innovations: The case of green shipping," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 114(C).
    6. Sándor Juhász & Tom Broekel & Ron Boschma, 2021. "Explaining the dynamics of relatedness: The role of co‐location and complexity," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 100(1), pages 3-21, February.
    7. Ascani, Andrea & Balland, Pierre-Alexandre & Morrison, Andrea, 2020. "Heterogeneous foreign direct investment and local innovation in Italian Provinces," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 388-401.
    8. László Lőrincz & Sándor Juhász & Rebeka O. Szabó, 2022. "Business transactions and ownership ties between firms," CERS-IE WORKING PAPERS 2216, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.
    9. Ron Boschma, 2017. "A concise history of the knowledge base literature: challenging questions for future research," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1721, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Sep 2017.
    10. Hesse, Kolja, 2020. "Unlocking the radical potential of German innovators How can R&D policy foster radical innovation?," Papers in Innovation Studies 2020/5, Lund University, CIRCLE - Centre for Innovation Research.
    11. Yifei Wang & Andrea Ascani & Carolina Castaldi, 2023. "Location choices of Chinese greenfield investments across EU regions: the role of industry and country-of-origin agglomerations," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 57(9), pages 1714-1730, September.
    12. Kairui Zheng & Yijie Li & Xiaohui Xin, 2022. "The Influencing Mechanism of High-Speed Rail on Innovation: Firm-Level Evidence from China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(24), pages 1-26, December.
    13. Ron Boschma, 2017. "Relatedness as driver behind regional diversification: a research agenda," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1702, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jan 2017.
    14. Christoph Roesler & Tom Broekel, 2017. "The role of universities in a network of subsidized R&D collaboration: The case of the biotechnology-industry in Germany," Review of Regional Research: Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, Springer;Gesellschaft für Regionalforschung (GfR), vol. 37(2), pages 135-160, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Doohee Chung & Marco Jinhwan Kim & Jina Kang, 2019. "Influence of alliance portfolio diversity on innovation performance: the role of internal capabilities of value creation," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 13(5), pages 1093-1120, November.
    2. Krammer, Sorin M.S., 2016. "The role of diversification profiles and dyadic characteristics in the formation of technological alliances: Differences between exploitation and exploration in a low-tech industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 517-532.
    3. Guo, Min & Yang, Naiding & Wang, Jingbei & Zhang, Yanlu & Wang, Yan, 2021. "How do structural holes promote network expansion?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 173(C).
    4. Piening, Erk P. & Salge, Torsten Oliver & Schäfer, Sebastian, 2016. "Innovating across boundaries: A portfolio perspective on innovation partnerships of multinational corporations," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 474-485.
    5. Colombo, Massimo G. & Grilli, Luca & Piva, Evila, 2006. "In search of complementary assets: The determinants of alliance formation of high-tech start-ups," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1166-1199, October.
    6. Maria Chiara Di Guardo & Kathryn Rudie Harrigan & Elona Marku, 2019. "M&A and diversification strategies: what effect on quality of inventive activity?," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 23(3), pages 669-692, September.
    7. Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio, 2019. "Trading knowledge for status: Conceptualizing R&D alliance formation to achieve ambidexterity," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 36-42.
    8. Kavusan, K., 2015. "Essays on capability development through alliances," Other publications TiSEM 8eb736a5-b217-4718-ac13-d, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    9. Cobeña, Mar & Gallego, Ángeles & Casanueva, Cristóbal, 2017. "Heterogeneity, diversity and complementarity in alliance portfolios," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 464-476.
    10. Dovev Lavie & Randi Lunnan & Binh Minh T. Truong, 2022. "How does a partner's acquisition affect the value of the firm's alliance with that partner?," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(9), pages 1897-1926, September.
    11. Russo, Angeloantonio & Vurro, Clodia & Nag, Rajiv, 2019. "To have or to be? The interplay between knowledge structure and market identity in knowledge-based alliance formation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 571-583.
    12. Leone, Maria Isabella & Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio & Natalicchio, Angelo, 2022. "Boundary spanning through external technology acquisition: The moderating role of star scientists and upstream alliances," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 116(C).
    13. de Leeuw, Tim & Lokshin, Boris & Duysters, Geert, 2014. "Returns to alliance portfolio diversity: The relative effects of partner diversity on firm's innovative performance and productivity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(9), pages 1839-1849.
    14. Casanueva, Cristóbal & Gallego, Ángeles & Sancho, María, 2013. "Network resources and social capital in airline alliance portfolios," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 441-453.
    15. Joel A. C. Baum & Robin Cowan & Nicolas Jonard, 2010. "Network-Independent Partner Selection and the Evolution of Innovation Networks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(11), pages 2094-2110, November.
    16. Li, Zhengyu, 2016. "Essays on knowledge sourcing and technological capability : A knowledge structure perspective," Other publications TiSEM b8ff31fc-c57b-4bc3-b5a4-0, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    17. Uwe Cantner, 2017. "Foundations of Economic Change: An Extended Schumpeterian Approach," Economic Complexity and Evolution, in: Andreas Pyka & Uwe Cantner (ed.), Foundations of Economic Change, pages 9-49, Springer.
    18. Jeffrey J. Reuer & Ramakrishna Devarakonda, 2017. "Partner Selection in R&D Collaborations: Effects of Affiliations with Venture Capitalists," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(3), pages 574-595, June.
    19. Hohberger, Jan & Kruger, Heidi & Almeida, Paul, 2020. "Does separation hurt? The impact of premature termination of R&D alliances on knowledge acquisition and innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(6).
    20. Kolja Hesse & Dirk Fornahl, 2020. "Essential ingredients for radical innovations? The role of (un‐)related variety and external linkages in Germany," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 99(5), pages 1165-1183, October.

    More about this item


    collaborative R&D projects; resource complementarity; co-occurrence analysis; FuE-Kooperation; Komplementarität; Co-Occurrence-Analyse;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:iwhdps:iwh-13-14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.