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Polarization, growth and social policy in the case of Israel, 1997 - 2008

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  • García-Fernándeza, Rosa María
  • Gottlieb, Daniel
  • Palacios-González, Federico

Abstract

In this paper we apply two statistical models to the measurement of polarization to Israeli income data over the past decade in order to empirically detect income classes as sub-populations of incomes concentrated around an optimal number of poles. The statistical models compared are a multi-resolution analysis (MRA) and a log-normal approach (LNA). We find the MRA to be superior to the LNA, by providing a more efficient allocation of households into each of the classes, reducing the overlap between the classes around the cut-values for each class. We then study polarization by use of the MRA in a multinomial logit-analysis by including ethnic-cultural, individual, family and other characteristics. We use a multiplicative normalized polarization measure developed by Palacios and Garcia (2010) which consists of presenting the interaction of three components, consistent with the axioms spelled out by Esteban and Ray (1994): alienation and identification, the number of income classes and the size distribution of the groups. The strong cultural heterogeneity of Israeli society, the sharp shifts in social policy during the observation period and the generally high quality of yearly Israeli income data render this dataset particularly useful for analyzing polarization. We find polarization to be significantly affected by cultural classes, by social policy and by standard demographic and individual characteristics. A comparison of our results with those of Esteban and Ray and Zhang and Kanbur reveals some similarity with our normalized version of Zangh and Kanbur (2001).

Suggested Citation

  • García-Fernándeza, Rosa María & Gottlieb, Daniel & Palacios-González, Federico, 2012. "Polarization, growth and social policy in the case of Israel, 1997 - 2008," Economics Discussion Papers 2012-55, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifwedp:201255
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Paapaa, Richard & van Dijk, Herman K., 1998. "Distribution and mobility of wealth of nations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(7), pages 1269-1293, July.
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    4. Gottlieb, Daniel, 2000. "Globalization and World financial Turmoil - A Test for Israel's Economic Policy," MPRA Paper 3150, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Seshanna, Shubhasree & Decornez, Stephane, 2003. "Income polarization and inequality across countries: an empirical study," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 335-358, June.
    6. Palacios-Gonzalez, Federico & Garcia-Fernandez, Rosa, 2009. "A Multiresolution Analysis of Income Polarization," European Journal of Economic and Social Systems, Lavoisier, vol. 22(1), pages 119-142.
    7. Duangkamon Chotikapanich & William E Griffiths, 2008. "Estimating Income Distributions Using a Mixture of Gamma Densities," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1034, The University of Melbourne.
    8. Jenkins, Stephen P., 1995. "Did the middle class shrink during the 1980s? UK evidence from kernel density estimates," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 407-413, October.
    9. Anthony B. Atkinson & Andrea Brandolini, 2011. "On the identification of the “middle class”," Working Papers 217, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    10. Gottlieb, Daniel & Kushnir, Leonid, 2009. "Social policy targeting and binary information transfer between surveys," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 3, pages 1-16.
    11. Jacques SILBER & Meital Hanoka & Joseph Deutsch, 2007. "On the Link Between the Concepts of Kurtosis and Bipolarization," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 4(36), pages 1-6.
    12. Pittau, Maria Grazia & Zelli, Roberto & Johnson, Paul, "undated". "Mixture Models and Convergence Clubs," Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series 91, Vassar College Department of Economics.
    13. X. Zhang & R. Kanbur, 2001. "What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make? An Application to China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 85-98.
    14. Gottlieb, Daniel, 2002. "The Effect of Migrant Workers on Employment,Real Wages and Inequality The Case of Israel -1995 to 2000," MPRA Paper 3148, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Duro, Juan Antonio, 2005. "Another look to income polarization across countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(9), pages 1001-1007, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Louis Chauvel, 2016. "The Intensity and Shape of Inequality: The ABG Method of Distributional Analysis," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 62(1), pages 52-68, March.
    2. Tuyen, Tran Quang, 2014. "The Impact Of Farmland Loss On Income Distribution Of Households In Hanoi'S Peri-Urban Areas, Vietnam," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 55(2), pages 189-206, December.
    3. Louis Chauvel, 2014. "The Intensity and Shape of Inequality: The ABG Method of Distributional Analysis," LIS Working papers 609, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    polarization; poverty; multi-resolution analysis; income distribution;

    JEL classification:

    • H54 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Infrastructures
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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