IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/hohdps/072020.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

It's a man's world? The rise of female entrepreneurship during privatization in Serbia

Author

Listed:
  • Ivanović, Vladan
  • Kufenko, Vadim

Abstract

The relationship between female empowerment and economic development is one of the most complex examples of reverse causality, yet multiple scholars acknowledge that female empowerment promotes economic progress. One of the crucial aspects of female empowerment is female entrepreneurship; however, the literature on the emergence of female entrepreneurship is scarce. We focus on the rise of female entrepreneurship in Serbia and collect an extensive biographical dataset of women, who took part in privatization. Although women enjoyed the same de jure rights as men, they faced a number of informal restrictions such as i) patriarchal values, limiting the role of women in the society and ii) occupations in low-wage sectors, making it difficult to accumulate capital. Analyzing the determinants of failures of the newly privatized firms during 2002-2019 we find a significant negative relationship between the risks of failure and the cases of own independent entrepreneurial success of women prior to privatization as well as the cases, in which only the entrepreneurial success of husbands of these women was registered. This relationship is robust to controlling for diverse characteristics of firms and to inclusion of ownership duration. We also find that the presence of influential husbands in the background was not significantly related to the subsequent change of ownership. Although the ownership change was registered for the majority of firms in our sample, we find that during the Serbian privatization women managed to build up on their own entrepreneurial success, which contributed to female empowerment. These findings can be relevant for understanding the aftermath of privatizations with respect to gender inequality in other transition countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Ivanović, Vladan & Kufenko, Vadim, 2020. "It's a man's world? The rise of female entrepreneurship during privatization in Serbia," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 07-2020, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:hohdps:072020
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/225625/1/1736049097.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Esther Duflo, 2012. "Women Empowerment and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1051-1079, December.
    2. Denisova, Irina & Eller, Markus & Frye, Timothy & Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina, 2012. "Everyone hates privatization, but why? Survey evidence from 28 post-communist countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 44-61.
    3. Ivan Vujacic & Jelica Petrovic Vujacic, 2011. "Privatisation in Serbia – Results and Institutional Failures," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, vol. 56(191), pages 89-106, October-D.
    4. Božidar Cerović & Radmila Mitrović, 2007. "Privatisation Effects: Some Evidence from Serbia," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 14(3), pages 469-487, December.
    5. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J & Blake, Christopher R, 1996. "Survivorship Bias and Mutual Fund Performance," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(4), pages 1097-1120.
    6. Klapper, Leora & Laeven, Luc & Rajan, Raghuram, 2006. "Entry regulation as a barrier to entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 591-629, December.
    7. Isis Gaddis & Stephan Klasen, 2014. "Economic development, structural change, and women’s labor force participation:," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(3), pages 639-681, July.
    8. Vladan Ivanović & Vadim Kufenko & Boris Begović & Nenad Stanišić & Vincent Geloso, 2019. "Continuity Under a Different Name: The Outcome of Privatisation in Serbia," New Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 159-180, March.
    9. Tatiana S. Manolova & Nancy M. Carter & Ivan M. Manev & Bojidar S. Gyoshev, 2007. "The Differential Effect of Men and Women Entrepreneurs’ Human Capital and Networking on Growth Expectancies in Bulgaria," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 31(3), pages 407-426, May.
    10. Reva, Anna, 2012. "Gender inequality in the labor market in Serbia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6008, The World Bank.
    11. Veland Ramadani & Alain Fayolle & Shqipe Gërguri-Rashiti, 2015. "Introduction: Female Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies as a Significant but Understudied Field," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Veland Ramadani & Shqipe Gërguri-Rashiti & Alain Fayolle (ed.), Female Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies, chapter 1, pages 1-8, Palgrave Macmillan.
    12. Veland Ramadani & Shqipe Gerguri-Rashiti & Alain Fayolle, 2015. "Female Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies: Trends and Challenges," Post-Print hal-02298215, HAL.
    13. Claude Diebolt & Faustine Perrin, 2013. "From Stagnation to Sustained Growth: The Role of Female Empowerment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 545-549, May.
    14. David Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn Finlay, 2009. "Fertility, female labor force participation, and the demographic dividend," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 79-101, June.
    15. Sanja Popovic Pantic, 2014. "An Analysis Of Female Entrepreneurship And Innovation In Serbia In The Context Of Eu Competitiveness," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, vol. 59(200), pages 61-90, January –.
    16. Ruta Aidis & Friederike Welter & David Smallbone & Nina Isakova, 2007. "Female entrepreneurship in transition economies: the case of Lithuania and Ukraine," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 157-183.
    17. Rick Geddes & Dean Lueck & Sharon Tennyson, 2012. "Human Capital Accumulation and the Expansion of Women's Economic Rights," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(4), pages 839-867.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. David E Bloom & Michael Kuhn & Klaus Prettner, 2020. "The contribution of female health to economic development [The costs of missing the Millennium Development Goal on gender equity]," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 130(630), pages 1650-1677.
    2. Manuel Santos Silva & Stephan Klasen, 2021. "Gender inequality as a barrier to economic growth: a review of the theoretical literature," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 581-614, September.
    3. Catherine L. McDevitt & James R. Irwin, 2017. "Women's empowerment and economic growth: Albany, NY, 1760-1860," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 37(3), pages 2041-2052.
    4. Hyland,Marie Caitriona & Islam,Asif Mohammed & Muzi,Silvia, 2020. "Firms' Discriminatory Behavior, and Women's Employment in the Democratic Republic of Congo," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9224, The World Bank.
    5. El-Mallakh, Nelly & Maurel, Mathilde & Speciale, Biagio, 2018. "Arab spring protests and women's labor market outcomes: Evidence from the Egyptian revolution," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 656-682.
    6. Perrin, Faustine, 2022. "Can the historical gender gap index deepen our understanding of economic development?," Journal of Demographic Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 88(3), pages 379-417, September.
    7. Raul Caruso & Antonella Biscione & Dorothée Boccanfuso & Annunziata de Felice, 2020. "Blinder-Oaxaca Approach to Identify Innovation Differences in Transition Countries," Working Papers 1008, European Centre of Peace Science, Integration and Cooperation (CESPIC), Catholic University 'Our Lady of Good Counsel'.
    8. Gabriele Cappelli & Michelangelo Vasta, 2021. "A “Silent Revolution”: school reforms and Italy’s educational gender gap in the Liberal Age (1861–1921)," Cliometrica, Springer;Cliometric Society (Association Francaise de Cliométrie), vol. 15(1), pages 203-229, January.
    9. Cuong Viet Nguyen & Finn Tarp, 2018. "Changing male perceptions of gender equality: Evidence from an experimental study," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2018-171, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    10. Verme, Paolo, 2014. "Economic development and female labor participation in the Middle East and North Africa : a test of the u-shape hypothesis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6927, The World Bank.
    11. Ho, Chi Pui, 2016. "Rise of Women in Unified Growth Theory: French Development Process and Policy Implications," MPRA Paper 73864, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Aparicio, Sebastian & Audretsch, David & Noguera, Maria & Urbano, David, 2022. "Can female entrepreneurs boost social mobility in developing countries? An institutional analysis," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 175(C).
    13. Paolo Verme, 2015. "Economic development and female labor participation in the Middle East and North Africa: a test of the U-shape hypothesis," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-21, December.
    14. Amin, Mohammad & Islam, Asif, 2014. "Does mandating nondiscrimination in hiring practices influence women's employment ? evidence using firm-level data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7076, The World Bank.
    15. Bedi, Arjun S. & Majilla, Tanmoy & Rieger, Matthias, 2018. "Gender Norms and the Motherhood Penalty: Experimental Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 11360, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Ms. Sonali Jain-Chandra & Miss Sonali Das & Naresh Kumar & Ms. Kalpana Kochhar, 2015. "Women Workers in India: Why So Few Among So Many?," IMF Working Papers 2015/055, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Le Bris, David & Tallec, Ronan, 2021. "The European Marriage Pattern and its Positive Consequences Montesquieu-Volvestre, 1660-1789," MPRA Paper 105324, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Ummad Mazhar, 2021. "Women empowerment and insecurity: firm-level evidence," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 56(1), pages 43-53, January.
    19. Deininger, Klaus & Xia, Fang & Jin, Songqing & Nagarajan, Hari K., 2014. "Inheritance law reform, empowerment, and human capital accumulation : second-generation effects from India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7086, The World Bank.
    20. Mariko J. Klasing & Petros Milionis, 2020. "The international epidemiological transition and the education gender gap," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 37-86, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    entrepreneurship; female entrepreneurship; economics of gender; political; economy; transition;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • P26 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Political Economy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:hohdps:072020. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/fwhohde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/fwhohde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.