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Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände: Organisationsgrade, Tarifbindung und Einflüsse auf Löhne und Beschäftigung

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  • Schnabel, Claus

Abstract

Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände spielen in Deutschland nicht nur bei der Lohnfindung, sondern auch in sozialpolitischen und arbeitsrechtlichen Fragen eine wichtige Rolle. Während die Mehrheit der Firmen in Arbeitgeberverbänden organisiert ist, sind weniger als ein Viertel der Beschäftigten Mitglied einer Gewerkschaft. Beide Sozialpartner haben große Probleme, neue Mitglieder zu gewinnen und bestehende zu halten. Ihre Organisationsgrade weisen ebenso rückläufige Tendenz auf wie die Tarifbindung. Trotz dieser Erosion sind tarifvertragliche Regelungen immer noch direkt oder indirekt für fünf von sechs Beschäftigten von Bedeutung, da (Flächen-)Tarifverträge auch für nicht formal tarifgebundene Unternehmen einen wichtigen Anker der Lohnsetzung darstellen. Empirische Studien zeigen, dass die Tarifvertragsparteien und die kollektive Lohnfindung einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die effektiv gezahlten Löhne aufweisen. Meldungen über eine abnehmende Tariftreue und eine Verbandsabstinenz der Unternehmen deuten jedoch darauf hin, dass die Gestaltungsmacht der Tarifvertragsparteien mehr und mehr bedroht ist.

Suggested Citation

  • Schnabel, Claus, 2005. "Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände: Organisationsgrade, Tarifbindung und Einflüsse auf Löhne und Beschäftigung," Discussion Papers 34, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:faulre:34
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Christoph Knoppik & Thomas Beissinger, 2003. "How Rigid are Nominal Wages? Evidence and Implications for Germany," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(4), pages 619-641, December.
    2. Kölling, Arnd & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Establishment Age and Wages: Evidence from German Linked Employer-Employee Data," IZA Discussion Papers 679, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Udo Brixy & Susanne Kohaut & Claus Schnabel, 2007. "Do Newly Founded Firms Pay Lower Wages? First Evidence from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 161-171, June.
    4. Ulrich Kaiser & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2001. "Collective Wage Agreements and Firms' Employment Policies," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 15(2), pages 317-341, June.
    5. Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2003. "Determinants of Trade Union Membership in Western Germany: Evidence from Micro Data, 1980-2000," IZA Discussion Papers 708, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2003. "Trade union membership in Eastern and Western Germany: convergence or divergence?," Discussion Papers 18, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    7. Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1995. "Differences and Changes in Wage Structures," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free95-1, April.
    8. Karl Brenke, 2004. "Ostdeutsche Industrie: weitgehende Abkehr von der kollektiven Lohnfindung," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 71(13), pages 152-158.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Brown, Alessio J.G. & Merkl, Christian & Snower, Dennis J., 2011. "Comparing the effectiveness of employment subsidies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 168-179, April.
    2. Kohaut, Susanne & Schnabel, Claus, 2006. "Tarifliche Öffnungsklauseln : Verbreitung, Inanspruchnahme und Bedeutung," Discussion Papers 41, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    3. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Licklederer, Stefanie & Zwiener, Hanna, 2015. "Mobility across firms and occupations among graduates from apprenticeship," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 138-151.
    4. Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2005. "Who Are the Workers Who Never Joined a Union? Empirical Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1658, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Eichhorst, Werner & Kaiser, Lutz C., 2006. "The German Labor Market: Still Adjusting Badly?," IZA Discussion Papers 2215, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Eichhorst, Werner, 2007. "Report No. 13: Wachstumsaspekte der Arbeitsmarktpolitik - Von den Nachbarn lernen," IZA Research Reports 13, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Antonczyk, Dirk & Fitzenberger, Bernd & Sommerfeld, Katrin, 2010. "Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 835-847, October.
    8. Merkl, Christian & Snower, Dennis J., 2008. "Escaping the unemployment trap: The case of East Germany," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 542-556, December.
    9. Snower, Dennis J. & Merkl, Christian, 2006. "The Caring Hand that Cripples: The East German Labor Market After Reunification (Detailed Version)," IZA Discussion Papers 2066, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. repec:zbw:ifwkwp:1309 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Gerlach Knut & Stephan Gesine, 2006. "Bargaining Regimes and Wage Dispersion," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 226(6), pages 629-645, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gewerkschaften; Arbeitgeberverbände; Tarifpolitik;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J50 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - General

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