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Gender Pay Gap in Poland


  • Michal Grajek


The gender pay gap under central planning and its changes in the course of transition have only lately attracted the attention of researchers. Only few papers focused on comparison between two economic regimes, pre and post reform, having reported narrowing gap for all East European countries. This paper adds more detailed study of timing of the gap changes to existing evidence. This in turn allows to identify which mechanisms of transition were responsible for these changes. It investigates the earnings gap between females and males in Poland over the years 1987-1996, i.e. in the last years of central planning and during the period of transition to market economy. The JMP decomposition, which accounts for changes in overall wage dispersion over time beyond Oaxaca's standard decomposition, is applied on large set of HBS data and reveals some interesting results. The year of giving away the power by the communists (1989) turned out to be far more important in terms of improving relative position of women than the actual year of launching the reform package (1990) and all the following years of transition. Females had gained substantially due to the structural shift in the very first years of the new economic system and the improvements have slowed down or even reversed in the next years, probably due to the "statistical" discrimination. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Die Verhandlungsmacht einer Koalition in parallelen Verhandlungen: Die Vorteile aus Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen regionaler Kabelbetreiber in den USA) Ausgehend von zwei unabhängigen bilateralen Monopolen, werden in diesem Beitrag die Auswirkungen von horizontalen Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen auf die Verhandlungsmacht einer Marktseite untersucht. Als Beispiel einer solchen Marktstruktur wird das Verhandlungsproblem zwischen US-amerikanischen Kabelbetreibern und lokalen Fernsehstationen in zwei von einander unabhängigen Märkten betrachtet. Es wird gezeigt, daß sich ein Zusammenschluß auf einer Marktseite lohnen kann, weil sich hierdurch die Verhandlungsmacht der integrierten Unternehmung erhöhen kann. Verhandelt ein horizontal integriertes Unternehmen in mehreren Märkten, so nimmt es in jedem einzelnen Markt die Verhandlungslösung der anderen Märkte als gegeben an. Würde die Verhandlung in einem Markt scheitern, bekäme das integrierte Unternehmen immer noch Zahlungen von den anderen Märkten. Falls dies das Unternehmen glaubwürdig höhere Forderungen stellen läßt, erhöht dies die Verhandlungsmacht des integrierten Unternehmens, was als fall-back position Effekt bezeichnet wird. Des weiteren zeigt der Artikel, daß das Aufteilen des Verhandlungsrisikos auf mehrere Personen deren Verhandlungsmacht erhöhen kann, was als risk-sharing Effekt bezeichnet wird. Aus verhandlungstheoretischer Sicht werden in diesem Artikel erstmalig die Präferenzen einer Koalition durch die Aggregation der Präferenzen ihrer Mitglieder hergeleitet.

Suggested Citation

  • Michal Grajek, 2001. "Gender Pay Gap in Poland," CIG Working Papers FS IV 01-13, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  • Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv01-13

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 283-303.
    2. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    3. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
    4. Jennifer Hunt, 2002. "The Transition in East Germany: When Is a Ten-Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 148-169, January.
    5. Keane, Michael P. & Prasad, Eswar S., 2006. "Changes in the structure of earnings during the Polish transition," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 389-427, August.
    6. Levy, Frank & Murnane, Richard J, 1992. "U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1333-1381, September.
    7. Schultz, Theodore W, 1975. "The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 827-846, September.
    8. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    9. Jan Rutkowski, 1996. "High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 4(1), pages 89-112, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "Analyse comparative de la mise en oeuvre du droit à l'égalité de rémunération : modèles et impacts," ILO Working Papers 993920333402676, International Labour Organization.
    2. Joanna Landmesser, 2016. "Decomposition of differences In income distributions Using quantile regression," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 17(2), pages 331-348, June.
    3. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013. "The Goodwill Effect? Female Access to the Labor Market Over Transition: A Multicountry Analysis," Working Papers 2013-19, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    4. Aleksandra Majchrowska & Paweł Strawiński, 2016. "Regional Differences in Gender Wage Gaps in Poland: New Estimates Based on Harmonized Data for Wages," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 8(2), pages 115-141, June.
    5. repec:kap:iaecre:v:19:y:2013:i:4:p:331-354 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:spr:izamig:v:8:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1186_s40176-017-0119-x is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Aleksandra Majchrowska & Paweł Strawiński & Karolina Konopczak & Agnieszka Skierska, 2014. "Why are women paid less than men? An investigation into gender wage gap in Poland," Working Papers 2014-31, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    8. Aleksandra Majchrowska & Pawel Strawinski & Karolina Konopczak & Agnieszka Skierska, 2015. "Gender wage gap by occupational groups in Poland," Lodz Economics Working Papers 3/2015, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology.
    9. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "How (Not) to Make Women Work?," GRAPE Working Papers 1, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    10. Mariusz Kaszubowski & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2014. "Salary and reservation wage gender gaps in Polish academia," GUT FME Working Paper Series A 19, Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology.
    11. repec:bla:revinw:v:63:y:2017:i:1:p:118-146 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Dorota Witkowska, 2013. "Gender Disparities in the Labor Market in the EU," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 19(4), pages 331-354, November.
    13. Brainerd, Elizabeth, 2010. "The Demographic Transformation of Post-Socialist Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 015, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. repec:ilo:ilowps:399524 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Witkowska Dorota, 2016. "Comparison of Women’s Situation in the Labour Market in the Former GDR and Poland," Comparative Economic Research, Sciendo, vol. 19(2), pages 129-148, June.
    16. Marjan Petreski & Nikica Blazevski & Blagica Petreski, 2014. "Gender Wage Gap when Women are Highly Inactive: Evidence from Repeated Imputations with Macedonian Data," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 393-411, December.
    17. repec:sgh:gosnar:y:2017:i:2:p:29-43 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "A comparative analysis of promoting pay equity : models and impacts," ILO Working Papers 993995243402676, International Labour Organization.
    19. repec:ilo:ilowps:392033 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps," GRAPE Working Papers 2, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.

    More about this item


    Earnings Differentials; Discrimination; Gender; Decomposition; Transition Economy; Planned Economy; Poland;

    JEL classification:

    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing


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