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Gender Pay Gap in Poland

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  • Michał Grajek

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Abstract

In this paper we examine the gender pay gap in Poland over 1987–1996, i.e., shortly before and during the transition to market economy. The principle source of data used throughout the paper is the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Polish Central Statistical Office. The study documents three major results. First, the transition to market economy in Poland favored women substantially in terms of relative earnings differentials. The gender pay gap decreased by 10.2 log% points and the position of mean female in male wage distribution went up by 9.9 percentiles over 1987–1996. By 1995, the values of these measures reached the level observed in industrial economies such as the U.K., Austria, Italy or Australia. Second, rising relative skills of women and rising returns to skills explain about half of the fall in the gender pay gap over 1987–1996. Third, the pay gap did not follow a smooth adjustment process. 1989, the year of the first democratic parliamentary elections, which resulted in forming the first non-communist government, saw the most spectacular change, although actual market reforms began one year after. The changes in the early phase of the transition were mostly driven by sudden shifts in relative wages and employment across industries. Afterwards, the pay gap measures stabilized, partly because rising overall wage inequalities offset the advantages of females due to observed skills. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Suggested Citation

  • Michał Grajek, 2003. "Gender Pay Gap in Poland," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 23-44, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:ecopln:v:36:y:2003:i:1:p:23-44 DOI: 10.1023/B:ECOP.0000005729.71467.38
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    1. Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, pages 283-303.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "Analyse comparative de la mise en oeuvre du droit à l'égalité de rémunération : modèles et impacts," ILO Working Papers 993920333402676, International Labour Organization.
    2. Joanna Landmesser, 2016. "Decomposition of differences In income distributions Using quantile regression," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 17(2), pages 331-348, June.
    3. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "How (Not) to Make Women Work?," GRAPE Working Papers 1, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    4. Brainerd, Elizabeth, 2010. "The Demographic Transformation of Post-Socialist Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 015, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. repec:ilo:ilowps:399524 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013. "The Goodwill Effect? Female Access to the Labor Market Over Transition: A Multicountry Analysis," Working Papers 2013-19, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    7. Aleksandra Majchrowska & Paweł Strawiński, 2016. "Regional Differences in Gender Wage Gaps in Poland: New Estimates Based on Harmonized Data for Wages," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 8(2), pages 115-141, June.
    8. Witkowska Dorota, 2016. "Comparison of Women’s Situation in the Labour Market in the Former GDR and Poland," Comparative Economic Research, De Gruyter Open, pages 129-148.
    9. Marjan Petreski & Nikica Blazevski & Blagica Petreski, 2014. "Gender Wage Gap when Women are Highly Inactive: Evidence from Repeated Imputations with Macedonian Data," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 393-411, December.
    10. repec:sgh:gosnar:y:2017:i:2:p:29-43 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:kap:iaecre:v:19:y:2013:i:4:p:331-354 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Aleksandra Majchrowska & Paweł Strawiński & Karolina Konopczak & Agnieszka Skierska, 2014. "Why are women paid less than men? An investigation into gender wage gap in Poland," Working Papers 2014-31, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    13. Aleksandra Majchrowska & Pawel Strawinski & Karolina Konopczak & Agnieszka Skierska, 2015. "Gender wage gap by occupational groups in Poland," Lodz Economics Working Papers 3/2015, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology.
    14. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "A comparative analysis of promoting pay equity : models and impacts," ILO Working Papers 993995243402676, International Labour Organization.
    15. repec:ilo:ilowps:392033 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Mariusz Kaszubowski & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2014. "Salary and reservation wage gender gaps in Polish academia," GUT FME Working Paper Series A 19, Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology.
    17. Dorota Witkowska, 2013. "Gender Disparities in the Labor Market in the EU," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, pages 331-354.
    18. Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps," GRAPE Working Papers 2, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    decomposition; earnings differentials; gender; planned economy; Poland; transition economy;

    JEL classification:

    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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