IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wsu/wpaper/gallardo-7.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Estimation of Unobserved Attributes Using a Control Function Approach, Modeling the Demand for Mint Flavored Gum

Author

Listed:
  • Daniel Toro-Gonzalez
  • Jia Yan
  • R. Karina Gallardo
  • Jill J. McCluskey

    (School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University)

Abstract

We analyze consumers’ demand for mint gum accounting for product heterogeneity and unobservable, to the econometrician, flavor quality. We use the control function (CF) approach in the context of a discrete choice logit model in an oligopolistic framework, where price-setting firms endogenously determine prices. We found that when using the control function approach, demand estimators are improved by reducing potential biases generated by endogeneity. We found that gum is price inelastic with respect to price and quality. Implications for the mint oil industry in the Pacific Northwest are cited.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniel Toro-Gonzalez & Jia Yan & R. Karina Gallardo & Jill J. McCluskey, 2013. "Estimation of Unobserved Attributes Using a Control Function Approach, Modeling the Demand for Mint Flavored Gum," Working Papers 2013-06, School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:wsu:wpaper:gallardo-7
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://faculty.ses.wsu.edu/WorkingPapers/Gallardo/WP2013-6.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2013
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rojas, Christian & Peterson, Everett B., 2008. "Demand for differentiated products: Price and advertising evidence from the U.S. beer market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 288-307, January.
    2. Nevo, Aviv, 2001. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 307-342, March.
    3. Toro-González Daniel & Gallardo R. Karina & Yan Jia & McCluskey Jill J., 2013. "Quality Differentiation with Flavors: Demand Estimation of Unobserved Attributes," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-11, September.
    4. Richards, Timothy J. & Hamilton, Stephen F. & Patterson, Paul M., 2010. "Spatial Competition and Private Labels," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 35(2), pages 1-26, August.
    5. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
    6. Jeremy W. Bray & Brett R. Loomis & Mark Engelen, 2009. "You save money when you buy in bulk: does volume‐based pricing cause people to buy more beer?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(5), pages 607-618, May.
    7. Arnade, Carlos Anthony & Gopinath, Munisamy & Pick, Daniel H., 2011. "How Much Do Consumers Benefit from New Brand Introductions? The Case of Potato Chips," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 36(1), pages 1-17, April.
    8. Victor Tremblay & Stephen Polasky, 2002. "Advertising with Subjective Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 20(3), pages 253-265, May.
    9. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-890, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bakhtavoryan, Rafael & Capps, Oral & Salin, Victoria, 2014. "The Impact of Food Safety Incidents Across Brands: The Case of the Peter Pan Peanut Butter Recall," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 559-573, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Toro-Gonzalez, Daniel & McCluskey, Jill J. & Mittelhammer, Ron, 2014. "Beer Snobs Do Exist: Estimation of Beer Demand by Type," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 39(2), pages 1-14.
    2. Ying, Xiongwei & Anders, Sven M., 2013. "Competition between Private Label and National Brand for Health-differentiated Food Product: A Canadian Retailing Case," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 151280, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Dubois, Pierre & Griffith, Rachel & O'Connell, Martin, 2014. "The Effects of Banning Advertising on Demand, Supply and Welfare: Structural Estimation on a Junk Food Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 9942, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Toro-Gonzalez, Daniel & Yan, Jia & Gallardo, Rosa Karina & McCluskey, Jill J., 2012. "Demand Estimation In The Presence Of An Unobservable Product Attribute: The Case Of Mint Quality," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 123518, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Alessandro Bonanno & Carlo Russo & Luisa Menapace, 2018. "Market power and bargaining in agrifood markets: A review of emerging topics and tools," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(1), pages 6-23, December.
    6. Donna, Javier D. & Pereira, Pedro & Trindade, Andre & Yoshida, Renan C., 2020. "Direct-to-Consumer Sales by Manufacturers and Bargaining," MPRA Paper 105773, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Tovar, Jorge, 2012. "Consumers’ Welfare and Trade Liberalization: Evidence from the Car Industry in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 808-820.
    8. Patrick Bajari & Jeremy Fox & Stephen Ryan, 2008. "Evaluating wireless carrier consolidation using semiparametric demand estimation," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 299-338, December.
    9. Pereira, Pedro & Ribeiro, Tiago, 2011. "The impact on broadband access to the Internet of the dual ownership of telephone and cable networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 283-293, March.
    10. Allais, Olivier & Etilé, Fabrice & Lecocq, Sébastien, 2015. "Mandatory labels, taxes and market forces: An empirical evaluation of fat policies," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 27-44.
    11. Nathan H. Miller, 2008. "Competition When Consumers Value Firm Scope," EAG Discussions Papers 200807, Department of Justice, Antitrust Division.
    12. Freyberger, Joachim, 2015. "Asymptotic theory for differentiated products demand models with many markets," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(1), pages 162-181.
    13. Celine Bonnet & Pierre Dubois & Sofia B. Villas Boas & Daniel Klapper, 2013. "Empirical Evidence on the Role of Nonlinear Wholesale Pricing and Vertical Restraints on Cost Pass-Through," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 500-515, May.
    14. Dongling Huang & Christian Rojas & Frank Bass, 2008. "What Happens When Demand Is Estimated With A Misspecified Model?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(4), pages 809-839, December.
    15. Nevo, Aviv, 2001. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 307-342, March.
    16. Pierre Dubois & Rachel Griffith & Martin O'Connell, 2020. "How Well Targeted Are Soda Taxes?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 110(11), pages 3661-3704, November.
    17. Nicholas Economides & Katja Seim & V. Brian Viard, 2008. "Quantifying the benefits of entry into local phone service," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(3), pages 699-730, September.
    18. Erica L. Groshen & Brian C. Moyer & Ana M. Aizcorbe & Ralph Bradley & David M. Friedman, 2017. "How Government Statistics Adjust for Potential Biases from Quality Change and New Goods in an Age of Digital Technologies: A View from the Trenches," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 187-210, Spring.
    19. Mattia Girotti & Richard Meade, 2017. "U.S. Savings Banks' Demutualization and Depositor Welfare," Working Papers 2017-08, Auckland University of Technology, Department of Economics.
    20. Steven Berry & James Levinsohn & Ariel Pakes, 2004. "Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(1), pages 68-105, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Control Function Approach; Quality Differentiation; Unobserved Product Attributes; Demand Estimation; Gum;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L66 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wsu:wpaper:gallardo-7. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ecwsuus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Danielle Engelhardt (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ecwsuus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.