A Simple Adaptive Procedure Leading to Correlated Equilibrium
We propose a new and simple adaptive procedure for playing a game: "regret-matching." In this procedure, players depart from their current play with probabilities that are proportional to measures of regret for not having used other strategies in the past. It is shown that our adaptive procedure guarantees that, with probability one, the empirical distributions of play converge to the set of correlated equilibria of the game. To compute these regret measures, a player needs to know his payoff function and the history of play. We also offer a variation where every player knows only his own realized payoff history (but not his payoff function).
|Date of creation:||24 Mar 1997|
|Date of revision:||24 Mar 1997|
|Note:||January 1997. Revised: October 1997. Paper + 3 figures (postscript). Also available at URL below|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Foster, Dean P. & Vohra, Rakesh, 1999. "Regret in the On-Line Decision Problem," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 29(1-2), pages 7-35, October.
- Fudenberg, Drew & Levine, David, 1998.
"Learning in games,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 631-639, May.
- Fudenberg, Drew & Levine, David K., 1995.
"Consistency and cautious fictitious play,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 19(5-7), pages 1065-1089.
- Sergiu Hart & Andreu Mas-Colell, 1999.
"A general class of adaptative strategies,"
Economics Working Papers
373, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine, 1997.
"Conditional Universal Consistency,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
471, David K. Levine.
- Robert J. Aumann, 2010.
"Correlated Equilibrium as an expression of Bayesian Rationality,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
661465000000000377, David K. Levine.
- Aumann, Robert J, 1987. "Correlated Equilibrium as an Expression of Bayesian Rationality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(1), pages 1-18, January.
- R. Aumann, 2010. "Correlated Equilibrium as an expression of Bayesian Rationality," Levine's Bibliography 513, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Sanchirico, Chris William, 1996.
"A Probabilistic Model of Learning in Games,"
Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1375-1393, November.
- Mertens,Jean-FranÃ§ois & Sorin,Sylvain & Zamir,Shmuel, 2015.
Cambridge University Press, number 9781107662636, October.
- Nau, Robert F. & McCardle, Kevin F., 1990. "Coherent behavior in noncooperative games," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 424-444, April.
- Colin Camerer & Teck-Hua Ho, 1999. "Experience-weighted Attraction Learning in Normal Form Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(4), pages 827-874, July.
- AUMANN, Robert J., "undated".
"Subjectivity and correlation in randomized strategies,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
167, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Aumann, Robert J., 1974. "Subjectivity and correlation in randomized strategies," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 67-96, March.
- R. Aumann, 2010. "Subjectivity and Correlation in Randomized Strategies," Levine's Working Paper Archive 389, David K. Levine.
- Roth, Alvin E. & Erev, Ido, 1995. "Learning in extensive-form games: Experimental data and simple dynamic models in the intermediate term," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 164-212.
- Nimrod Megiddo, 1979. "On Repeated Games with Incomplete Information Played by Non-Bayesian Players," Discussion Papers 373, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Roger B. Myerson, 1995.
"Dual Reduction and Elementary Games,"
1133, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-881, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpga:9703006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.